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We recently reported an association between TAAR6 (trace amine associated receptor 6 gene) variations and schizophrenia (SZ). We now report an association of a set of TAAR6 variations and clinical presentation and outcome in a sample of 240 SZ Korean patients. Patients were selected by a Structured Clinical Interview, DSM-IV Axis I disorders – Clinical Version (SCID-CV). Other psychiatric or neurologic disorders, as well as medical diseases, were exclusion criteria. To assess symptom severity, patients were administered the CGI scale and the PANSS at baseline and at the moment of discharge, 1 month later on average. TAAR6 variations rs6903874, rs7452939, rs8192625 and rs4305745 were investigated; rs6903874, rs7452939 and rs8192625 entered the statistical investigation after LD analysis. Rs8192625 G/G homozygosis was found to be significantly associated both with a worse clinical presentation at PANSS total and positive scores and with a shorter period of illness before hospitalization. No haplotype significant findings were found. The present study stands for a role of the TAAR6 in the clinical presentation of SZ. Moreover, our results show that this genetic effect may be counteracted by a correct treatment. Haplotype analysis was not informative in our sample, probably also because of the incomplete SNPs' coverage of the gene we performed. Further studies in this direction are warranted.
Antipsychotics often induce excessive weight gain. We hypothesised that individuals with genetic variations related to known obesity-risk genes have an increased risk of excessive antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG). This hypothesis was tested in a subset of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) trial data set.
The CATIE trial compared effects and side effects of five different antipsychotics through an 18-month period. Based on the maximum weight gain recorded, excessive weight gain was defined as >7% weight gain. Cytoscape and GeneMANIA were instrumental in composing a molecular pathway from eight selected genes linked to obesity. Genetic information on a total of 495.172 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were available from 765 (556 males) individuals. Enrichment test was conducted through ReactomePA and Bioconductor. A permutation test was performed, testing the generated pathway against 105 permutated pathways (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, a standard genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis was performed.
GWAS analysis did not detect significant differences related to excessive weight gain. The pathway generated contained 28 genes. A total of 2067 SNPs were significantly expressed (p < 0.01) within this pathway when comparing excessive weight gainers to the rest of the sample. Affected genes including PPARG and PCSK1 were not previously related to treatment-induced weight gain.
The molecular pathway composed from high-risk obesity genes was shown to overlap with genetics of patients who gained >7% weight gain during the CATIE trial. This suggests that genes related to obesity compose a pathway of increased risk of excessive AIWG. Further independent analyses are warranted that may confirm or clarify the possible reasoning behind.