To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Trichomonas vaginalis is an extracellular parasite that colonizes the human urogenital tract leading to trichomoniasis, the most common sexually-transmitted non-viral disease worldwide. The immune response plays a critical role in the host defense against this parasite. Trichomonas' DNA contains unmethylated CpG motifs (CpGDNA) that in other microorganisms act as modulators of the immune response. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for CpGDNA immune modulation are still unclear. As macrophages participate in the first line of defense against infection, we investigated the type of immune response of murine macrophages to T. vaginalis DNA (TvDNA). We observed high expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12p40 in macrophages stimulated with TvDNA. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory response, assessed by IL-10 and IL-13 mRNA expression was delayed. This suggests that the immune response induced by TvDNA is modulated through cytokine production, mediated partly by NADPH-oxidase activity, as TvDNA induced reactive species of oxygen production and a rounded morphology in macrophages indicative of an M1 phenotype. Furthermore, infected mice pretreated with TvDNA displayed persistent vulvar inflammation and decreased parasite viability consistent with higher proinflammatory cytokine levels during infection compared to untreated mice. Overall, our findings suggest that TvDNA pretreatment modulates the immune response favouring parasite elimination.
Within out-of-hospital emergencies, primary health care (PHC) nurses must face life-threatening emergencies (LTEs), which are defined as “a situation associated with an imminent life risk that entails the start-up of resources and special means to resolve the situation.”
The objectives of this study were to know the training received for out-of-hospital LTEs by PHC nurses of Asturias, Spain and the perception they have about their theoretical knowledge and practical skills in a series of emergency procedures or techniques used in LTE emergencies; as well as to analyze the differences according to the geographical area of their work.
Cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational study was conducted in 2018 of a sample of PHC service nurses of Asturias, Spain.
A total of 236 nurses from PHC service centers of Asturias, Spain, from among the total of 730 nurses who make up the staff of nurses of the PHC service of Asturias, between April and May 2018, were surveyed. The survey was designed ad hoc using the Doctrinal Body of Emergency Nursing (DBEN) proposed by the Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine (SEMES; Madrid, Spain), which indicates the theoretical and practical procedures that must be acquired by the PHC nurses. It is composed of 37 procedures or techniques employed in LTEs using an 11-point Likert scale rating to detect their self-perception about theoretical knowledge and practical skills from zero (“Minimum”) to ten (“Maximum”).
There were significant differences in the mean of theoretical knowledge and practical skills in many procedures or techniques studied, depending on the different areas of work.
All PHC nurses must be perfectly trained to provide initial quality assistance to the LTE, with both theoretical and practical knowledge of the different techniques, so that it can continue to be attended by the corresponding Emergency Service.
Although the Near Threatened jaguar Panthera onca ranges from the south-west USA to central Argentina, populations outside Amazonia are generally small and isolated. One such area, the Sierra Madre de Chiapas in the state of Chiapas, Mexico, is potentially an important area for jaguar conservation but information on the species in this region is limited and its conservation status is unknown. In this study we documented the occurrence and abundance of jaguars in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas complex. We compiled all available records of the species within the region and conducted a camera-trap survey during August 2015–December 2016. Interviews were conducted to determine the perception of the jaguar by cattle owners and to obtain information on any livestock predation. We found that jaguars still occur throughout the Sierra Madre de Chiapas landscape, including the plains on the Pacific Coast of Chiapas, but its abundance in the region is low. On the basis of our findings we have incorporated the Sierra Madre de Chiapas in Mexico's National Jaguar Conservation Strategy, and recommend that international organizations include this area in their priorities for jaguar conservation. To improve coexistence between jaguars and the communities of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, strategies need to be developed, in collaboration with the local communities, to improve livestock practices for reduction of predation by jaguars, to strengthen government conservation policies and to implement educational and communication programmes about the importance of this species in the region.
Bòbila Madurell-Can Gambús is the most emblematic Neolithic cemetery in the northeastern Iberian peninsula, with a total of 179 documented pit burials. Artifacts made of exogenous raw materials, such as honey flint (southeastern France), jadeite, amphibolite, eclogite and nephrite (Alps and the Pyrenees), variscite (coast of northeastern Iberia), and even obsidian (Sardinia), have been found in the burials. The presence of these raw materials is not exclusive to this necropolis, but they have also been documented in many of the graves of this region during this period. The literature has singled out this funerary practice as the Pit Burials cultural horizon. However, until now the chronology of this funerary practice has not been fully defined, so it was difficult to explain the development of the chronology and the networks through which the materials reached northeast Iberia. New, unpublished radiocarbon (14C) dates of Bòbila Madurell-Can Gambús are presented, as well as the results of different statistical analyses and Bayesian modeling that specify its chronology. Through the contribution of new data on the chronology of Bòbila Madurell-Can Gambús new clues regarding the temporal dynamics of pit burials and the raw materials exchange networks associated with them are presented.
Harnessing the properties of imidazolium species, antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was attained by binary-grafting 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or N-isopropylacrylamide, followed by N-vinylimidazole onto polypropylene (PP) monofilaments (sutures) using 60Co γ-rays. Ulterior functionalization with methyl iodide was carried out to endow brushes with antimicrobial activity on the PP surface. The PP-grafted sutures were characterized by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy attenuated total reflection, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis, and regarding the mechanical properties and the responsiveness to pH and temperature. Tests were performed on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus achieving large inhibition zones.
Although dating violence takes place within the context of a couple, there are few studies exploring how the prevalence data change when violence is reported by one partner or both, and to what extent partners agree about the existence of violence. The aim of this study is therefore to analyze and compare the reports about the prevalence of violence obtained from participants and their partners, together with interpartner agreement concerning victimization and perpetration of threats, physical, verbal-emotional and sexual violence. A total of 105 young heterosexual couples answered a questionnaire about victimization and the perpetration of violence in their relationship during the previous year. The results indicated that prevalence rates varied, depending on who reported the violence -the man, the woman or the couple- perhaps because interpartner agreement was low, except for the occurrence of verbal-emotional violence and the absence of physical violence. These findings suggest the need to develop more systematic research, especially through the use of reports from both members of the couple.
Este libro reúne un número significativo de artículos suponen una aportación ciertamente notable a la bibliografía disponible hasta la fecha. Juan de Mena: de letrado a poeta recoge dieciséis trabajos en los que se estudia su figura y su obra desde perspectivas distintas pero complementarias que abren nuevas líneas de investigación o bien enriquecen otras ya existentes. El libro está estructurado en tres grandes bloques temáticos: El primero de ellos se dedica al contexto histórico de Juan de Mena. El segundo bloque gira en torno a la configuración del poeta, atendiendo a la conciencia autorial de Mena y a los recursos literarios que emplea. El tercer y último bloque está dedicado a la transformación del 'famosíssimo poeta Juan de Mena' en un clásico. Cristina Moya García es profesora en la Universidad de Córdoba. This book contains several studies reviewing the two facets of Juan de Mena's life as lawyer and poet. These contributions open up new lines of research on this important early-fifteenth-century Castilian writer and enrich some existing ones, studying Juan de Mena from different perspectives. The book is structured into three thematic blocks: The first is devoted to the historical context of Juan de Mena. The second section focuses on the configuration of the poet. The third and final part is dedicated to the transformation of "famosíssimo poeta Juan de Mena" into a classic author. Cristina Moya García is a profesor at the Universidad de Córdoba.Contributors: Federica Accorsi, Carlos Alvar, Linde M. Brocato, Daniel Capra, Juan Luis Carriazo Rubio, Antonio Cortijo, Sila Gómez Álvarez, Ángel Gómez Moreno, Daniel Hartnett, Julián Jiménez Heffernan, Maxim Kerkhof, Françoise Maurizi, Cristina Moya García, Francisco de Paula Cañas Gálvez, Pedro Ruiz Pérez.
Studying eating habits can aid in the design of specific measures that reduce the negative effects of an unhealthy diet on health. In this context, the aim of the present study was to examine the eating habits and food preferences of students and their level of satisfaction with the catering services of the university.
Survey conducted during 2011 using a questionnaire that asked participants abut their sex, age and frequency of use of catering services placed on campus. Participants were also asked about their level of satisfaction with five aspects (hygiene, quality, taste of food, price and convenience of facilities) of the university catering services, what their preferred dishes were and whether they followed a special diet.
Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
Nine hundred and sixty-four students (381 males; 583 females).
The students used the university food service 2·3 (sd 1·3) times/week. With respect to satisfaction level, 44·1 % gave an average score (3) to the combination of surveyed aspects (hygiene, quality, taste of food, price and comfort of the dining rooms). Regarding food choices, 61·0 % of students preferred pasta dishes, followed by meat (59·1 %) and salads (32·5 %). The least popular dishes were vegetables (16·8 %), fruits (13·6 %), milk products (12·2 %) and legumes (9·8 %). Of the students, 20·1 % followed special diets.
The degree of satisfaction with the university meal service was low and the most common choices of dishes and foods among students were far from the guidelines of the Mediterranean diet. It is necessary to extend policies related to diet to this sector of the population and also to the management and food offer of university canteens.
A study of the fluid flow in a mixing device proposed to dissolve alloying elements in iron baths is performed through a mathematical model in order to predict the best operating conditions for a proper melting/dissolution of solid alloying particles. The mathematical model consists in the mass and momentum conservation equations (continuity and Turbulent Navier-Stokes equations), and the standard two k-epsilon turbulence model. The model is numerically solved in transient regime with the Volume of Fluid algorithm (VOF) to calculate the vortex shape. VOF is built-in the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software ANSYS FLUENT 14. A flow of metal enters tangentially in the mixing chamber of the proposed mixing device (taken from an open patent) to generate a vortex. The shape and height of the vortex reached in this chamber depends on several design variables, but in this work only the presence or absence of a barrier in the device is analyzed. Results are obtained on the vortex sizes and shapes, liquid flow patterns, turbulent structure, residence times of the particles of alloying elements added to the melt and mixing times (Residence time distribution curves) of two devices: one with a barrier and the other without this barrier. It is found that the presence of the barrier in the device increases turbulence, destroys the vortex, decreases the residence time of the particles, and decreases the volume of fluid in the device. Most of the features of the barrier are detrimental for mixing and inhibits melting/dissolution of the alloying elements. Then, it is suggested a device without the presence of barrier for better performance.
Agricultural production estimates have often differentiated and estimated different technologies within a sample of farms. The common approach is to use observable farm characteristics to split the sample into groups and subsequently estimate different functions for each group. Alternatively, unique technologies can be determined by econometric procedures such as latent class models. This paper compares the results of a latent class model with the use of a priori information to split the sample using dairy farm data. Latent class separation appears to be a superior method of separating heterogeneous technologies and suggests that technology differences are multifaceted.
This study's focus is to evaluate a sexual coercion prevention program in adolescents. Using a beforeand- after design with both a treatment group (n = 93) and a control group (n = 76), an intervention of seven sessions was completed. Said sessions included such content as conceptualizing sexual freedom, sexual coercion and voluntary consent, analyzing different sexual coercion tactics and the contexts in which they occur, empathy toward the victim, and developing abilities to avoid risky situations. Other risk factors for coercive behavior and sexual victimization are explored as well, such as alcohol use, sexist attitudes and inadequate communication, among others. The intervention's results include a decrease in stereotypical beliefs about the opposite sex and increased empathy toward victims of sexual coercion. These changes were maintained with the passage of time. Also, in the treatment group, a more acute decline was observed in the proportion of young people engaging in sexually coercive behaviors. This article emphasizes the importance, necessity and efficacy of such interventions, and discusses and analyzes possible improvements to the program for its future implementation.
Anionic clays has been used in the adsorption of anionic species of toxic heavy metals, such as chromium (VI), which is considered to be a dangerous pollutant, due to its deleterious effects on human health such as epithelial irritation and cancer. In this work the removal of chromium in aqueous solutions using anionic clays with Mg/Al=7 was determined. The anionic clays were synthesized by the sol-gel method at pH 10 and 11.5, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). By this method, anionic clay containing brucite was obtained. The solids exhibited meso-porosity, high surface areas and thermal stability until 500°C. The data obtained from the adsorption experiments of chromium fitted to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and the adsorbent capacity was determined using the Langmuir adsorption equation. The maximum chromium uptake was 45 mg of Cr/g sorbent and 43 mg Cr/g sorbent for anionic clays prepared to pH 10 and 11.5, respectively. The Cr saturation point was attained after eight minutes stirring time. According to chromium adsorption values, the solution pH does not have a significant affect on the adsorption capacity of the anionic clays.