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Based largely on research completed in the North American context, scholars of prisons detail the multiple ways in which carceral practices extend beyond prison walls to transform a wide variety of spaces, ultimately assessing how carceral imaginaries inhabit the most intimate aspects of everyday life. In Latin America, this division between the inside and the outside of prison breaks down even further when read from the perspective of survival. Drawing on ethnographic research across Guatemala's penitentiary system, this article explores how the deep interdependencies that develop between male prisoners and female visitors sustain not just these prisoners and their visitors but also the prison system itself.
Understanding crystal orientation at the ferroelectric domain level, using a non destructive technique, is crucial for the design and characterization of nano-scale devices. In this study, piezoresponse force spectroscopy (PFS) is used to identify ferroelectric domain orientation. The impact of crystal orientation on the switching field of ferroelectric BaTiO3 is also investigated at the domain level. The preferential domain orientations for BaTiO3 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in this study are ,  and . They have been mapped onto PFS spectra to show three corresponding switching fields of 460, 330 and 120 kV/cm respectively. In addition, the electric field at which the enhanced piezoresponse occurs was found to vary, due to a phase change. The polarization reversal occurs via a 2-step process (rotation and switching) for  and  orientations. The piezoresponse enhancement is absent for the  (pure switching) domains. The results demonstrate that an electric field induced phase change causes the  and  domains to reverse polarization at a lower field than the  domain.
Films deposited by the Hot Wire CVD method were studied by means of dark conductivity, FTIR, Hydrogen Evolution, SEM and AFM surface characterization. Three types of metastability were observed: a) long term irreversible degradation due to oxidization processes on the film surface, b) reversible degradation determined by uncontrolled water adsorption, c) fast field switching effect in the film bulk.
Oxygen and hydrogen content and its bonding configurations have been analyzed by hydrogen evolution and infrared spectroscopy methods on the films deposited on glass substrates and silicon wafers subsequently. It has been found that metastable processes close to the film surface are stronger than in the bulk. The switching effect is the fast increase of charge carrier density observed on bottom chromium contacts under a condition of air admittance. We propose this effect is associated with morphology changes during film growth and electrical field induced by adsorbed atmospheric components on the film surface.
The influence of the location, dose and width of the doping spike in a delta doped MOSFET is investigated theoretically. Calculations are performed for a range of n and p type 5M0SFETS, and the importance of each design parameter of the device is assessed. The optimum device has a delta layer around 2 0nm deep, with a sheet doping density around 1012cm−2 for the pMOSFET and 5.1011cm−2 for the nMOSFET. The effect of diffusion of the dopant during processing on the device performance is also considered, and it is found that this causes a shift in the threshold voltage of the device. The layer width should ideally be kept below 5nm.
The development of electromigration-induced voids and hillocks in Al - 4 wt. % Cu interconnects is monitored by scanning electron microscopy during interrupted testing and is correlated directly with the actual grain configuration including precipitates. The short segments under study and their grain structures are defined and observed using focused ion beam microscopy. The Cu content in precipitate grains is swept away before electromigration damage, and at most such grains there is subsequent grain thinning. The observations are compared with the results from a computer simulation based on a finite-element calculation of self-consistent current density and temperature distributions. For the first time the simulation uses the actual grain configuration and incorporates Cu atom migration, and back-fluxes driven by stress and concentration gradients. In the simulation the grain-boundary diffusivity is taken to be independent of boundary misorientation or is varied according to randomly assigned orientations. The comparison of the voiding in these two simulated cases and the observations shows that some grain configurations are very susceptible to electromigration damage whatever the diffusivities. For most configurations, however, the misorientation dependence of grainboundary diffusivity is significant and must be included if simulations are to be realistic.
This paper reports the analysis of geometrical and microstructural effects on void formation in interconnects. Ion-beam machining is used to define segments for study at the cathode end of test lines. Scanning electron microscopy is used to observe damage development, focused ion beam microscopy to observe the corresponding grain structure. Finite-element calculations of self-consistent current density and temperature distributions in the conductor are used to predict damage locations both for a continuum material and for simulated grain structures. Cross-section changes in the line give temperature variations leading to divergences in atomic flux. Regions of
high flux divergence are favoured for electromigration damage, but the precise sites of damage are determined by the grain structure, as shown both in the experiment and in the modelling.
In this paper, we describe some of the results that we have obtained using Wafer Level Joule Heated Electromigration Test and Current Ramp Test. The results indicate that the Cu we tested is more resistive to open failure due to current ramp than Al-1%Si-0.5%Cu. The value of the activation energy for electromigration of Cu using fixed current under wafer level joule heated electromigration test is 0.59 eV. The activation energy due to the effect of temperature gradient failure mechanism is 0.82 eV.
Detailed investigations of strain generation and relaxation in Si films grown on thin Si0.78Ge0.22 virtual substrates using Raman spectroscopy are presented. Good virtual substrate relaxation (>90%) is achieved by incorporating C during the initial growth stage. The robustness of the strained layers to relaxation is studied following high temperature rapid thermal annealing typical of CMOS processing (800-1050 °C). The impact of strained layer thickness on thermal stability is also investigated. Strain in layers below the critical thickness did not relax following any thermal treatments. However for layers above the critical thickness the annealing temperature at which the onset of strain relaxation occurred appeared to decrease with increasing layer thickness. Strain in Si layers grown on thin and thick virtual substrates having identical Ge composition and epilayer thickness has been compared. Relaxation through the introduction of defects has been assessed through preferential defect etching in order to verify the trends observed. Raman signals have been analysed by calibrated deconvolution and curve-fitting of the spectra peaks. Raman spectroscopy has also been used to study epitaxial layer thickness and the impact of Ge out-diffusion during processing. Improved device performance and reduced self-heating effects are demonstrated in thin virtual substrate devices when fabricated using strained layers below the critical thickness. The results suggest that thin virtual substrates offer great promise for enhancing the performance of a wide range of strained Si devices.
In this paper we report on the quantification of Ge diffusion in strained Si/SiGe (s-Si/SiGe) structures for different Ge content in the SiGe virtual substrate. Using TCAD tools, the diffusivity has been calculated by varying pre-exponential factor and activation energy for Ge diffusion in s-Si and SiGe layers separately and obtaining a fit to the SIMS profiles. We observe an exponential and a linear dependence of pre-factor and activation energy for Ge diffusion in s-Si and SiGe, respectively, which is in agreement with literature. As a result of diffusion, the carrier confinement in thin strained layer reduces and the mobility is affected. Using C-V measurements on MOS capacitors fabricated along with devices, a shift in the flat band voltage has been observed and is attributed to a change in the interface trapped and fixed oxide charge. We observe a stronger effect of the variation of strained layer thickness than Ge content on the change in the flatband voltage. This observation is consistent with an exponential increase in Ge arriving at the interface with decrease in strained layer thickness.
(1) To determine whether rapid screening with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays leads to the earlier isolation of patients at risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization, (2) to assess compliance with routine MRSA screening protocols, (3) to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MRSA real-time PCR assay (Cepheid) by comparison with culture, and (4) to compare turnaround times for PCR assay results with those for culture results.
Before-and-after study conducted in a 700-bed acute tertiary care referral hospital. Study periods were (1) a 5-week period before PCR testing began, (2) a 10-week period when the PCR assay was used, and (3) a 5-week period after PCR testing was discontinued.
Among 489 at-risk patients, MRSA was isolated from 20 (33%) of 60 patients during period 1, 77 (22%) of 349 patients during period 2, and 18 (23%) of 80 patients during period 3. Twenty-two (27%) of 82 at-risk patients were not screened during period 1, compared with 40 (10%) of 389 at-risk patients not screened during period 2 (P < .001). More MRSA-positive patients were preemptively isolated during periods 1 and 3 compared with period 2 (34 [24%] of 140 vs 28 [8%] of 389; P < .001); however, more MRSA-positive patients were isolated after notification of MRSA-positive results during period 2 (47 [13%] of 349) compared with periods 1 and 3 (2 [1%] of 140; P < .001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the PCR assay were 95%, 97%, 82%, and 99%, respectively. The mean turnaround time from receipt of specimens in the laboratory to PCR assay result was 2.6 hours.
Rapid screening with the Xpert MRSA PCR assay facilitated compliance with screening policies and the earlier isolation of MRSA-positive Patients. Discrepant results confirm that PCR testing should be used as a screening tool rather than as a diagnostic tool.
The relationship between core self-evaluation (Judge, Locke & Durham 1997) and job satisfaction and organisational commitment is explored. Two workplace environment factors are examined as potential mediators of these relationships; empowerment and organisational climate. The sample for the study consisted of employees from one quick-service restaurant chain well regarded in employee and community relations. The findings of the research support mediation of the core self-evaluation and job satisfaction relationship as well as the core self-evaluation and organisational commitment relationship. A discussion of the relevance of these findings for hospitality practitioners and the hospitality literature alike is provided.
This paper describes the exploratory use of isothermal micro-calorimetry (IMC) to measure directly the heat flow produced as seeds age. Heat flow was recorded in primed and non-primed (control) seeds of Ranunculus sceleratus L., aged in a micro-calorimeter at 35°C at three different seed water contents [c. 0.12, 0.075 and 0.045 g H2O (g dw)−1]. The rate of heat flow and total heat generated (an indicator of extent of reaction) were generally greater in control seeds, which aged at a faster rate, than in primed seeds. Total heat generated over a given period also increased with increasing water content. The power–time curves did not indicate first- or second-order rate kinetics, consistent with the probability that seed ageing is complex and involves a number of reactions. Even after the capacity to germinate had ceased, there was a residual power signal. As a method, IMC gave consistent results using independent samples at different times. Therefore, short-term experiments at relatively high water contents and/or temperatures may have the potential to predict the relative longevity of seed-lots, at least within a species.
Interpersonal dependence is thought to be important in a number of physical and psychological disorders. There are several developmental theories that suggest environmental influences in childhood are important.
A twin study methodology was used to look at the genetic and environmental influences on interpersonal dependence as measured by a sub-scale of the Interpersonal Dependency Inventory with a population-based sample of 2230 twins.
Psychometric analysis revealed that this was a stable measure and that there was a substantial degree of construct validity Both univariate and longitudinal twin analysis suggested that there was a modest genetic influence and a large, specific environment influence on interpersonal dependency as measured by this scale. The longitudinal analysis revealed that the genetic influence was stable over the time-scale sampled and the environmental influence was moderately stable.
This finding is at odds with theories that suggest shared environment is important in the aetiology of interpersonal dependency.
Clinical, neuropsychological and psychopharmacological characteristics were investigated for their ability to distinguish individuals with and without involuntary movements (tardive dyskinesia), among a population of 40 out-patients with bipolar affective disorder and a history of exposure to neuroleptics and lithium. Impaired performance on a test of cognitive flexibility bore the primary association with both the presence and the severity of involuntary movements. The additional relationships identified emphasized further that individual vulnerability to involuntary movements appeared to be associated not with greater duration or dosage of treatment, but with features of the bipolar illness, including number and type of affective episodes, for which that treatment was prescribed.
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