The taxonomy of Merodon dobrogensis Bradescu, 1982 (Diptera: Syrphidae) species subgroup was reviewed. Multiple data sources (morphology, geometric morphometry of wings and surstylus, molecular data, and distributional data) were used to investigate the species subgroup in the manner of integrative taxonomy. Merodon dobrogensis Bradescu, 1982 and M. puniceus Vujić, Radenković, and Pérez-Bañón, 2011 are supported as distinct species belonging to the M. dobrogensis species complex within the M. dobrogensis species subgroup. Additionally, evidence is presented for the description of a new species, M. rojoi Radenković and Vujić new species, with a distribution in mainland Greece, the Greek island Euboea, and the Peloponnese. A short diagnosis is provided for the M. aureus species group, the M. dobrogensis species subgroup, and the newly defined M. dobrogensis species complex, in addition to a description of the new species, with drawings and photographs of adult morphology.