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The aim of the present study was to compare the long-term effects of two dietary approaches on changes in dietary intakes, eating behaviours and body weight: (1) approach using restrictive messages to limit high-fat foods (low-fat intake; LOFAT); (2) approach emphasising non-restrictive messages directed towards the inclusion of fruits and vegetables (high intake of fruits and vegetables; HIFV). A total of sixty-eight overweight or obese postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to one of the two dietary approaches. The 6-month dietary intervention included three group sessions and ten individual sessions with a dietitian. Dietary intakes, eating behaviours and anthropometrics were measured at baseline, at the end of the dietary intervention (T = 6) and 6 months and 12 months after the end of the intervention (T = 12 and T = 18). In the LOFAT group, energy and fat intakes were lower at T = 6 when compared with baseline and remained lower at T = 12 and T = 18. In the HIFV group, fruit and vegetable intakes increased significantly at T = 6 but were no longer significantly different from baseline at T = 12 and T = 18. Dietary restraint increased at T = 6 and remained higher than baseline at T = 18 in the LOFAT group while no significant change was observed in the HIFV group. At T = 6, body weight was significantly lower than baseline in both groups (LOFAT: − 3·7 (sd 2·8) kg; HIFV: − 1·8 (sd 3·0) kg) and no significant difference in body-weight change from baseline was found between groups at T = 18. We concluded that weight loss was similar at 1-year follow-up in both dietary approaches. Despite relatively good improvements in the short term, the adherence to a 6-month dietary intervention promoting high intakes of fruits and vegetables was difficult to maintain.
Associations between eating behaviours and dietary variables have not been thoroughly investigated in healthy postmenopausal women in a real-life uncontrolled context. To investigate how eating behaviours (cognitive dietary restraint, disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger) were associated with food and drink consumption, energy density and meal pattern in 112 healthy postmenopausal women (age 56·8 (sd 4·4) years) not on hormonal therapy. Women completed a 3 d weighed food record and filled out the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. The sample was divided according to the median of the distribution of cognitive dietary restraint and disinhibition (9 and 6 respectively). Both subgroups of women with high restraint level (presenting either high or low disinhibition) consumed a diet with a lower energy density than subgroups of women with lower restraint level. Women with high restraint–low disinhibition had a lower consumption of red meat and processed meat and a lower consumption of diet soft drinks than women with low restraint–high disinhibition. They were also characterised by a higher intake of whole grains than women with high restraint–high disinhibition and than women with lower restraint level (with either high or low disinhibition). Women with high restraint–high disinhibition levels showed differences in dietary variables when compared with subgroups of women with lower restraint level, namely for refined grains and diet soft drinks. We conclude that in healthy postmenopausal women, dietary consumption of specific food and drink may be related to particular eating behaviours. Women with high restraint and low disinhibition levels generally showed the most healthy dietary pattern.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean food pattern in free-living conditions on LDL electrophoretic characteristics in a group of seventy-one healthy women, aged between 30 and 65 years. The 12-week nutritional intervention consisted of two courses on nutrition and seven individual sessions with a dietitian. The first course provided information on the Mediterranean food pattern and the second was a cooking lesson. LDL peak particle diameter (LDL-PPD) and cholesterol levels in small (LDL-cholesterol<255?Å) and large LDL fractions (LDL-cholesterol>260?Å) were obtained by 2–16% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole plasma. The sample was divided on the basis of baseline LDL-PPD using tertiles of the distribution (258·4 Å and 260·0 Å). Among the total sample of women, no significant change in LDL-PPD was observed in response to the nutritional intervention. However, subjects who at baseline were in the first tertile of the LDL-PPD distribution (>258·4 Å) showed a significant increase in LDL-PPD and in the proportion of LDL% >260?%uest;Å in response to the 12-week nutritional intervention (P>0·05). In contrast, LDL-PPD decreased significantly (P=0·007) among women with large LDL particles at baseline (LDL-PPD >260 Å) while the proportion of LDL%<255 Å and of LDL%>260 Å remained unchanged. To conclude, changes in the food pattern, in response to a nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean food pattern, were accompanied by beneficial modifications in LDL electrophoretic characteristics in women who were characterised at baseline by smaller LDL particles.
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