To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Before embarking on a discussion of trademark functions, it is appropriate to briefly explore the meaning of “functions” in Intellectual Property (IP) law. Generally speaking, each IP right has an essential function defined by the basic task assigned to it. Thus, patents and copyright incentivize innovation and the creation of new works; trademarks indicate commercial origin. Second, IP rights (IPRs) typically fulfill economic functions that are more varied than the essential ones. Thus, for instance, patents can have the economic function to maximize leveraging power on particular markets, or to attract venture capital. Third, the legal or legally protected functions are determined by the elements of an IP right that a particular legislature has chosen to protect. While the essential functions usually determine the core of the legal protection granted, they do not necessarily confine the scope of the rights conferred. That is, the legal or legally protected functions may go beyond the essential functions, for reasons of policy or convenience. The economic functions typically operate as a catalyst in that process: where a discrepancy is observed between the economic functions and the written law, the legislature or the courts may be motivated to better align the latter with market reality. Of course, that scheme can also be reversed: where the operation of IPRs on the market yields undesirable or detrimental economic effects, legislative steps or judicial practice may be called for in order to bring the legal functions back to basics.