It is shown that star disclinations can be a significant source of stress in chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond. This purely geometrical origin contrasts with other sources of stress that have been proposed previously. The effectiveness is demonstrated of the use of electron irradiation using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to displace atoms from their equilibrium sites to investigate intrinsic defects and impurities in CVD diamond. After irradiation, the samples are studied by low temperature photoluminescence microscopy using UV or blue laser illumination. Results are given that are interpreted as arising from isolated <100> split self-interstitials and positively charged single vacancies. Negatively charged single vacancies can also be revealed by this technique. Nitrogen and boron impurities may also be studied similarly. In addition, a newly developed liquid gallium source scanned ion beam mass spectrometry (SIMS) instrument has been used to map out the B distribution in B doped CVD diamond specimens. The results are supported by micro-Raman spectroscopy.