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The panel, “Negotiating the Personal and Professional: Ethnomusicologists and Uncomfortable Truths,” presented at the Forty-third ICTM World Conference in Astana, Kazakhstan, grew out of informal conversations common among ethnomusicologists. As practitioners in our discipline, we are involved in complex webs of experience, relationships, and representations focused around music, broadly defined. Our work is inherently social and, when in the field, we develop close relationships with our teachers and consultants as we become comfortable in our sites of research. We are grateful for priceless access to communities and individuals. The intensity and combination of certain relationships and circumstances, however, can lead to conflicting expectations, unanticipated misunderstanding, and situations of personal and professional conflict.
Does party government moderate the responsiveness of public policy to public opinion? Analysing a new dataset, we examine whether the ability of governments to respond to the public on 306 specific policy issues in Denmark, Germany and the UK is affected by the extent of coalition conflict and by the fit of the considered policy changes with the government preferences. We find a systematic but relatively weak positive impact of public support on the likelihood and speed of policy change. Contrary to expectations, a higher number of coalition partners are not associated with fewer policy changes nor with weaker responsiveness to public opinion. We also find no evidence that responsiveness to public opinion is necessarily weaker for policy changes that go against the preferences of the government. Rather, it appears that public and government support for policy change are substitute resources.
To investigate: (i) how lunch frequency of adolescents varies between schools and between classes within schools; (ii) the associations between frequency of lunch and individual sociodemographic factors and school characteristics; and (iii) if any observed associations between lunch frequency and school characteristics vary by gender and age groups.
Cross-sectional study in which students and school headmasters completed self-administered questionnaires. Associations were estimated by multilevel multivariate logistic regression.
The Danish arm of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study 2010.
Students (n 4922) aged 11, 13 and 15 years attending a random sample of seventy-three schools.
The school-level and class-level variations in low lunch frequency were small (intraclass correlation coefficient <2·1 %). At the individual level, low lunch frequency was most common among students who were boys, 13- and 15-year-olds, from medium and low family social class, descendants of immigrants, living in a single-parent family and in a reconstructed family. School-level analyses suggested that having access to a canteen at school was associated with low lunch frequency (OR=1·47; 95% CI 1·14, 1·89). Likewise not having an adult present during lunch breaks was associated with low lunch frequency (OR=1·44; 95% CI 1·18, 1·75). Cross-level interactions suggested that these associations differed by age group.
Lunch frequency among Danish students appears to be largely influenced by sociodemographic factors. Additionally, the presence of an adult during lunch breaks promotes frequent lunch consumption while availability of a canteen may discourage frequent lunch consumption. These findings vary between older and younger students.
The existing literature on bias in interest group access faces the challenge that there is often no clear benchmark for judging whether a given distribution of interest groups involved in policy making is biased. To tackle this challenge, we link two new data sets on registered European Union (EU) interest groups and membership of the advisory committees of the European Commission and examine the factors affecting selection to these committees. Our approach allows us to qualify the conclusions of the existing literature. We see that, even if business interests dominate advisory committees, they are not generally privileged over other group types in the selection processes and their degree of access varies considerably between policy areas. Instead, supranational interest groups enjoy selection privileges, which are particularly pronounced on permanent committees. Finally, we find some evidence that, even though lobbying budgets are important for getting access, their value varies across group types. In this way, our study has implications for future theory building on resource exchanges between interest group types and decision makers.
Fortification with the essential trace element iodine is widespread worldwide. In the present study, results on iodine excretion and intake of iodine-rich foods from a cross-sectional study carried out in 2004–5, 4 to 5 years after the implementation of mandatory iodine fortification, were compared with data in a study carried out in 2008–10. The 2008–10 study was a follow-up of a cross-sectional study carried out before iodine fortification was implemented. Participants in the cross-sectional studies were randomly selected. Both studies were carried out in the cities of Aalborg and Copenhagen in Denmark. The median urinary iodine concentration decreased in women from 97 μg/l (n 2862) to 78 μg/l (n 2041) (P< 0·001). The decrease persisted after adjustment for age, city and education, and if expressed as estimated 24 h iodine excretion. The prevalence of users of iodine containing dietary supplements increased from 29·4 to 37·3 % (P< 0·001). The total fluid intake increased in women (P< 0·001), but the intake of other iodine-rich foods did not change. The median urinary iodine concentration did not change in men (114 μg/l (n 708) and 107 μg/l (n 424), respectively), while the total fluid intake decreased (P= 0·001). Iodine content was measured in milk sampled in 2000–1 and in 2013. The iodine content was lower in 2013 (12 (sd 3) μg/100 g) compared with that in 2000–1 (16 (sd 6) μg/100 g) (P< 0·001). In conclusion, iodine excretion in women has decreased below the recommended level. The reason might probably, at least partly, be a decreased content of iodine in milk.
European Court of Justice – The nature of European law – European Law Academia – Costa v. E.N.E.L. and Van Gend & Loos – Legal Service of the European Commission – How the constitutional discourse became dominant
Despite the proliferation of instruments of public consultation in liberal democracies, little is known of how the design and use of these instruments affect stakeholder participation in practice. The article examines participation in written government consultations in an analysis of approximately 5,000 responses to consultations in Denmark and the UK in the first half of 2008. It shows that participation is highly conditional upon system- and actor-level characteristics in practice. Our findings indicate that, even if liberal democracies have adopted similar procedures for actor consultation in the last decades, the design and application of crucial rules vary considerably between systems. They emphasize how the conduct of consultation is heavily conditioned by the design of these processes, which is in turn constrained by the historical legacy of state–society structures of the system in question.
The fifteenth-century Nuremberg carnival plays—short, skit-like, rhymed couplet texts written in German and largely treating secular themes—present new and rich opportunities to explore the nature and practice of reading in the late medieval world. Defining reading first as the visual processing and mental decoding of letters on a page allows this essay to glance briefly at some of the notions of reading implicit in the manuscript transmission itself, and to examine the motif of reading in the plays. We will see that while the motif of reading books and letters is not uncommon in medieval German literature from the 1200s on, it is virtually absent from the Nuremberg carnival plays, where it is alluded to only occasionally. That this should be so in a city enjoying high rates of literacy and renowned for its cultivation of literature leads us to further exploration of the plays based on a second definition of reading as interpretation broadly construed, in Dennis H. Green's formulation “the reading of signs where no actual writing is involved and where the reader is to pass from an external indicator to the concealed meaning.” This expanded definition allows us to explore the ways in which the plays make their comic points by participating in and staging a broad and surprising spectrum of medieval interpretive practices: personification; medical diagnosis; character diagnosis using four humors theory; mental arithmetic (Kopfrechnen); and, finally, imaginative or performative visualization, a technique widely discussed in connection with medieval religious and devotional practice but less well studied in the realm of secular, comic literature.
A deep-sea sediment core covering the last 20 ka and located between the Polar and the Arctic fronts in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) of the central Fram Strait has been investigated for changes in paleoceanography and calcium carbonate preservation. The reconstruction is based on the distribution patterns of planktic foraminifera, mean shell weight and the degree of fragmentation of their shells, stable isotopes and other geochemical and sedimentological data. The results show that the planktic foraminifera shells are poorly preserved throughout most of the record. Only the intervals comprising the early Holocene from 10.8 to ~ 8 cal ka BP and the last 800 yr show improved preservation of CaCO3. The dissolution correlated with the extent of Arctic water and the associated marginal ice zone (MIZ) and high organic productivity. Dissolution of planktic foraminifera is generally high during the late deglaciation, mid and late Holocene prior to ~ 800 cal yr BP. The abundance of small subpolar species increases in the surface sediments dating from the last century, which could be interpreted as a large and significant surface water warming. However, this apparent high-magnitude warming seems to be overestimated due to preservation changes in the youngest sediments.
Since collection of 24 h urine samples is very time consuming and difficult to obtain, epidemiological studies typically only obtain spot urine samples. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether flavonoids and enterolactone in overnight urine could substitute flavonoids and enterolactone in 24 h urine as an alternative and more feasible biomarker of fruit, vegetable and beverage intake. A total of 191 individuals in the Inter99 cohort in Denmark completed the validation study. Concentrations of nine urinary flavonoid aglycones (quercetin, isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, kaempferol, hesperetin, naringenin, eriodictyol, phloretin and apigenin) and enterolactone were determined in overnight and 24 h urine samples, and their validity as biomarkers of fruit, vegetable and beverage intake was evaluated in relation to two independent reference methods (Inter99 FFQ data and plasma carotenoids) by using the method of triads. The intakes of fruit, juice, vegetables and tea reported in the FFQ were reflected by the flavonoid biomarker both in overnight and 24 h urine samples. Validity coefficients for the flavonoid biomarker in overnight urine ranged from 0·39 to 0·49, while the corresponding validity coefficients for the biomarker in 24 h urine ranged from 0·43 to 0·66. Although the validity coefficients were lower for overnight urine than for the 24 h urine flavonoid biomarker, they were still of acceptable magnitude. In conclusion, the results indicate that flavonoids and enterolactone in overnight urine samples may be used as a more feasible biomarker than 24 h urine for the assessment and validation of fruit, juice, vegetable and tea intakes in epidemiological studies.
Objectives: Telemedicine applications could potentially solve many of the challenges faced by the healthcare sectors in Europe. However, a framework for assessment of these technologies is need by decision makers to assist them in choosing the most efficient and cost-effective technologies. Therefore in 2009 the European Commission initiated the development of a framework for assessing telemedicine applications, based on the users’ need for information for decision making. This article presents the Model for ASsessment of Telemedicine applications (MAST) developed in this study.
Methods: MAST was developed through workshops with users and stakeholders of telemedicine.
Results: Based on the workshops and using the EUnetHTA Core HTA Model as a starting point a three-element model was developed, including: (i) preceding considerations, (ii) multidisciplinary assessment, and (iii) transferability assessment. In the multidisciplinary assessment, the outcomes of telemedicine applications comprise seven domains, based on the domains in the EUnetHTA model.
Conclusions: MAST provides a structure for future assessment of telemedicine applications. MAST will be tested during 2010–13 in twenty studies of telemedicine applications in nine European countries in the EC project Renewing Health.