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The title of the book needs no explanation: Why Muslim Integration Fails in Christian-Heritage Societies. It marks an issue of widespread and obvious current relevance, especially in Europe and in the United States in the age of Donald Trump. It registers a claim that is surely controversial and that also perhaps blends empirical and normative judgments. The book is thus a perfect candidate for a Perspectives symposium because it opens itself to so many different perspectives.
While improvements in healthcare have resulted in children with complex and life-threatening conditions living longer, a proportion of them still die. The death of a child puts parents at increased risk for anxiety, depression, and complicated grief. Increasing our understanding of the coping strategies that parents use under such extreme circumstances will enable us to best provide support to families, before and after a child's death. Our aim herein was to develop a theoretical framework of parental coping.
Evidence from the literature was employed to develop a theoretical framework to describe parental coping in the context of having a child with a life-limiting illness who is declining and facing eventual death.
The reasoning and argument consists of three guiding elements: (1) the importance of approach as well as avoidance (as coping strategies) in the context of managing the extreme emotions; (2) the importance of the social aspect of coping within a family, whereby parents cope for others as well as for themselves; and (3) the importance of a flexible and balanced coping profile, with parents using different coping strategies simultaneously. Central to the proposed framework is that effective coping, in terms of adjustment, is achieved by balancing coping strategies: accessing different coping strategies simultaneously or in parallel with a specific focus on (1) approach and avoidance and (2) coping aimed at self and others.
Significance of results:
Understanding of parental coping strategies is essential for health professionals in order to support parents effectively.
Communication between emergency department (ED) staff and parents of children with asthma may play a role in asthma exacerbation management. We investigated the extent to which parents of children with asthma implement recommendations provided by the ED staff. Method: We asked questions on asthma triggers, ED care (including education and discharge recommendations), and asthma management strategies used at home shortly after the ED visit and again at 6 months.
A total of 148 children with asthma were recruited. Thirty-two percent of children were not on inhaled corticosteroids prior to their ED visit. Eighty percent of parents identified upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) as the primary trigger for their child’s asthma. No parent received or implemented any specific asthma strategies to reduce the impact of URTIs; 82% of parents did not receive any printed asthma education materials. Most (66%) parents received verbal instructions on how to manage their child’s future asthma exacerbations. Of those, one-third of families were told to return to the ED. Parents were rarely advised to bring their child to their family doctor in the event of a future exacerbation. At 6 months, parents continued to use the ED services for asthma exacerbations in their children, despite reporting feeling confident in managing their child’s asthma.
Improvements are urgently needed in developing strategies to manage pediatric asthma exacerbations related to URTIs, communication with parents at discharge in acute care, and using alternate acute care services for parents who continue to rely on EDs for the initial care of mild asthma exacerbations.
There was a great battle at Gettysburg. Men screamed and died, and their blood soaked into the ground. The wheels of the artillery wagons dented the earth, and gunpowder scorched the trees. There were no monuments then.
When Lincoln came to speak at Gettysburg, the blood had dried and the screams were silent. There is silence now, and the dead have gone into the earth. There are monuments there. There are ghosts. They rose for Lincoln, when he called the dead out of the hallowed ground. When we read the Gettysburg Address we find ourselves on that same hallowed ground. Our ground, our land, is not on earth alone. Our people are not all numbered among the living.
Americans are a people whose homeland is the text. Our allegiance goes not to a land whose boundaries and contours change, but to words: to the words of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Gettysburg Address. Those words have made us. It is to those words, those ideals, those promises, those aspirations, that we give our first and most enduring loyalties. The Gettysburg Address has become one of the canonical texts of the American nation. Generations of students, myself among them, were taught to recite it as a kind of republican catechism. In this text, which grounds our nationality, this text that is our American earth, we find ourselves among the dead.
Background: Quality of life (QOL) is frequently assessed in persons with dementia (PWD) through self- and/or proxy-report. Determinants of QOL ratings are multidimensional and may differ between patients and caregiver proxies. This study compared self- and proxy-reported QOL ratings in a population-based study of PWD and their caregivers, and examined the extent to which discrepancies in reports were associated with characteristics of the PWD.
Methods: The sample consisted of 246 patient/caregiver dyads from the initial visit of the Cache County Dementia Progression Study, with both members of the dyad rating PWD QOL. PWD age, gender, cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination), neuropsychiatric symptoms (Neuropsychiatric Inventory; NPI), dementia severity (Clinical Dementia Rating), medical comorbidities (General Medical Health Rating), and functional impairment (Dementia Severity Rating Scale) were examined as correlates of self- and proxy-reported QOL ratings and the differences between the QOL reports.
Results: Self- and proxy-reported PWD QOL ratings were only modestly correlated. Medical comorbidity was associated with self-report whereas NPI was associated with proxy-report. Dementia severity was associated with discrepancies in self- and proxy-report, with worse patient cognition associated with poorer proxy-reported QOL ratings.
Conclusions: PWD self- and proxy-reported QOL ratings are associated with different variables. Discrepancies between PWD and caregiver perceptions of PWD QOL should be recognized, particularly in cases of more severe dementia.
Jytte Klausen's The Cartoons That Shook the World offers an interesting political science account of the Danish cartoon controversy and of a broader set of tensions between multiculturalism, civility, and freedom of expression. The book is also a fascinating case study of how political science can itself become the object of dispute, due to Yale University Press' decision to publish the book without any reproductions of the controversial cartoons.
We have thus asked a range of political scientists to comment on the Danish cartoon imbroglio, the book's analysis of it, and the controversy over the book itself.—Jeffrey C. Isaac, Editor
This project was initiated with an undergraduate student’s exploration of two advanced research tools: the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the atomic force microscope(AFM). A research project was developed to study the application of microscopy to introductory physics instruction. Nine modules covering various aspects of introductory physics were created. Module components included discussions, laboratory experiments and assessments. Four of the nine modules were implemented in various high school classes. Assessments were used to compare student learning with the modules versus standard textbook/lecture techniques. Preliminary results of this study are presented along with recently developed methods created to facilitate implementation of these modules within the high school classroom.
The intent of the CRISP education and outreach effort is to use materials science as a vehicle for enhancing the scientific literacy and knowledge of kindergarten through post-graduate level students. A challenging part of our mission has been inspiring students to take the next step and consider further study (or a career) in the field of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE). The CRISP educational programs were developed through a partnership between Yale University, Southern Connecticut State University and the urban school district of New Haven, CT. An overview of the methods and results of both formal and informal educational program components will be presented for years one and two of the CRISP MRSEC. This paper will focus on two CRISP programs: 1) MRSEC Initiative for Multidisciplinary Education & Research (MIMER) and 2) “Exploring Materials Science” mobile kits. The evaluation data indicates that the approach used in developing these educational programs is important. Specifically, the impact of these programs is influenced by the students' ability to relate the acquired knowledge to real life applications and technologies. In particular, emphasizing career opportunities rather than just presenting content-based programs is a key element to increasing interest towards further study in Materials Science and Engineering.
In May, 1990, a conference was held at UCLA on the theme of “American Politics in Historical Perspective.” Panels were organized on political institutions and social history, on periodization, and on political identity. The panel presentations on political identity are printed below, along with some of the exchanges among the conference group. Slightly edited for clarity, they are offered to readers in the interest of conveying some of the intellectual ferment currently surrounding the focus on political identity and its use as an approach in historical study. The editors of Studies in American Political Development do not endorse any of the views or interpretations expressed.
Manliness. By Harvey C. Mansfield. New Haven: Yale University
Press, 2006. 304p. $27.50.
Harvey Mansfield gives the book to us, in the first instance, as a
response to feminism. Feminism, he argues, has sought to erase all
differences between the genders, a project which must ultimately fail, for
those differences are founded in nature. Feminism has succeeded, however,
in diminishing the value and suppressing the practice of the virtue of
manliness. The author sets himself the task of restoring that virtue.