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Trinucleotide repeats have been associated with schizophrenia, but the evidence, based on cross-sectional clinical information, is equivocal.
To examine the relationship between genomic CAG/CTG repeat size and premorbid development in schizophrenia.
Early development and premorbid functioning of 22 patients with DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia were assessed by parental interviews. Repeat expansion detection (RED) technique was used to measure genomic CAG/CTG repeat size, and PCR for CAG repeat size at the ERDA-1 and CTG 18.1 loci.
There was an inverse association between CAG/CTG size and perinatal complications. Patients with speech and motor developmental delay had larger repeats. The results were not due to expansion in the ERDA-1 and CTG 18.1 genes.
CAG/CTG repeat expansion is associated with speech and motor developmental delay in schizophrenia. We propose that the developmental model may be useful for research into the genetics of schizophrenia.
The present study explored relationships among personality, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarkers, and dementia by addressing the following questions: (1) Does personality discriminate healthy aging and earliest detectable stage of AD? (2) Does personality predict conversion from healthy aging to early-stage AD? (3) Do AD biomarkers mediate any observed relationships between personality and dementia status/conversion?
Both self- and informant ratings of personality were obtained in a large well-characterized longitudinal sample of cognitively normal older adults (N = 436) and individuals with early-stage dementia (N = 74). Biomarkers included amyloid imaging, hippocampal volume, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42, and CSF tau.
Higher neuroticism, lower conscientiousness, along with all four biomarkers strongly discriminated cognitively normal controls from early-stage AD individuals. The direct effects of neuroticism and conscientiousness were only mediated by hippocampal volume. Conscientiousness along with all biomarkers predicted conversion from healthy aging to early-stage AD; however, none of the biomarkers mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and conversion. Conscientiousness predicted conversion as strongly as the biomarkers, with the exception of hippocampal volume.
Conscientiousness and to a lesser extent neuroticism serve as important independent behavioral markers for AD risk.
The Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry (MATR) is a population-based registry of more than 60,000 twins primarily born or living in Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina. Researchers may utilize the MATR for administration of research services, including study recruitment, data or sample (e.g., DNA) collection, archival dataset creation, as well as data collection through mailed, phone or online surveys. In addition, the MATR houses the MATR Repository, with over 1700 DNA samples primarily from whole blood available for researchers interested in DNA genotyping. For over 40 years MATR twins have participated in research studies with investigators from a range of scientific disciplines and institutions. These studies, which have resulted in numerous publications, explored diverse topics, including substance use, smoking behaviors, developmental psychopathology, bullying, children’s health, cardiovascular disease, cancer, the human microbiome, epigenetics of aging, children of twins and sleep homeostasis. Researchers interested in utilizing twins are encouraged to contact the MATR to discuss potential research opportunities.
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a significant clinical and public health concern. Understanding the distribution of CRE colonization and developing a coordinated approach are key components of control efforts. The prevalence of CRE in the District of Columbia is unknown. We sought to determine the CRE colonization prevalence within healthcare facilities (HCFs) in the District of Columbia using a collaborative, regional approach.
This study included 16 HCFs in the District of Columbia: all 8 acute-care hospitals (ACHs), 5 of 19 skilled nursing facilities, 2 (both) long-term acute-care facilities, and 1 (the sole) inpatient rehabilitation facility.
Inpatients on all units excluding psychiatry and obstetrics-gynecology.
CRE identification was performed on perianal swab samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction, culture, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). Prevalence was calculated by facility and unit type as the number of patients with a positive result divided by the total number tested. Prevalence ratios were compared using the Poisson distribution.
Of 1,022 completed tests, 53 samples tested positive for CRE, yielding a prevalence of 5.2% (95% CI, 3.9%–6.8%). Of 726 tests from ACHs, 36 (5.0%; 95% CI, 3.5%–6.9%) were positive. Of 244 tests from long-term-care facilities, 17 (7.0%; 95% CI, 4.1%–11.2%) were positive. The relative prevalence ratios by facility type were 0.9 (95% CI, 0.5–1.5) and 1.5 (95% CI, 0.9–2.6), respectively. No CRE were identified from the inpatient rehabilitation facility.
A baseline CRE prevalence was established, revealing endemicity across healthcare settings in the District of Columbia. Our study establishes a framework for interfacility collaboration to reduce CRE transmission and infection.
Cognitive measures that are sensitive to biological markers of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology are needed to (a) facilitate preclinical staging, (b) identify individuals who are at the highest risk for developing clinical symptoms, and (c) serve as endpoints for evaluating the efficacy of interventions. The present study assesses the utility of two cognitive composite scores of attentional control and episodic memory as markers for preclinical AD pathology in a group of cognitively normal older adults (N=238), as part of the Adult Children Study. All participants were given a baseline cognitive assessment and follow-up assessments every 3 years over an 8-year period, as well as a lumbar puncture within 2 years of the initial assessment to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and amyloid tracer Pittsburgh compound-B scan for amyloid imaging. Results indicated that attentional control was correlated with levels of Aβ42 at the initial assessment whereas episodic memory was not. Longitudinally, individuals with high CSF tau exhibited a decline in both attention and episodic memory over the course of the study. These results indicate that measures of attentional control and episodic memory can be used to evaluate cognitive decline in preclinical AD and provide support that CSF tau may be a key mechanism driving longitudinal cognitive change. (JINS, 2015, 21, 573–583)
While there is increasing recognition among archaeologists of the extent to which non-agricultural societies have managed their terrestrial ecosystems, the traditional management of marine ecosystems has largely been ignored. In this paper, we bring together Indigenous ecological knowledge, coastal geomorphological observations, and archaeological data to document how Northwest Coast First Nations cultivated clams to maintain and increase productivity. We focus on “clam gardens,” walled intertidal terraces constructed to increase bivalve habitat and productivity. Our survey and excavations of clam gardens in four locations in British Columbia provide insights into the ecological and social context, morphology, construction, and first reported ages of these features. These data demonstrate the extent of traditional maricultural systems among coastal First Nations and, coupled with previously collected information on terrestrial management, challenge us to broaden our definition of “forager” as applied to Northwest Coast peoples. This study also highlights the value of combining diverse kinds of knowledge, including archaeological data, to understand the social and ecological contexts of traditional management systems.
Despite their discovery almost 30 years ago, the origin of the Galactic center nonthermal filaments (NTFs) remains poorly understood. The improved capabilities of the VLA offer a fantastic opportunity to make a multi-frequency, full spectropolarimetric study of the radio arc at high angular resolution. Observations presented here are from DnC and CnB array configuration data taken at S, C and X band (coverage between 2-12 GHz; continuum only). In addition there are also Ka and Q band (continuum and spectral line coverage) observations that are part of the study but not shown in this short proceedings. These data will allow us to make the first high angular resolution Faraday study of the Galactic center radio arc.
This article describes British Columbia’s regulatory model for assisted living and used time series analysis to examine individuals’ use of health care services before and after moving to assisted living. The 4,219 assisted living residents studied were older and predominantly female, with 73 per cent having one or more major chronic conditions. Use of health care services tended to increase before the move to assisted living, drop at the time of the move (most notably for general practitioners, medical specialists, and acute care), and remain low for the 12-month follow-up period. These apparent positive effects are not trivial; the cohort of 1,894 assisted living residents used 18,000 fewer acute care days in the year after, compared to the year before, their move. Future research should address whether and how assisted living affects longer-term pathways of care for older adults and ultimately their function and quality of life.
This volume contains contributions that consider new approaches to three areas: the documentation of rock art; its interpretation using indigenous knowledge; and the presentation of rock art. Working with Rock Art is the first edited volume to consider each of these areas in a theoretical rather than a technical fashion, and it therefore makes a significant contribution to the discipline. The volume aims to promote the sharing of new experiences between leading researchers in the field. While the geographic focus is truly global, there is a dominant north-south axis with strong representation from researchers in southern Africa and northern Europe, two leading centres for new approaches in rock art research. Working with Rock Art opens up a long overdue dialogue about shared experiences between these two centres, and a number of the chapters are the first published results of new collaborative research. Since this volume covers the recording, interpretation and presentation of rock art, it will attract a wide audience of researchers, heritage managers and students, as well as anyone interested in the field of rock art studies.
Working with Rock Art presents the outcomes of the first ever collaboration between South Africa and Scandinavia in the field of rock art studies. The particular focus was on hunter-gatherer rock arts. Norway and South Africa are two countries that are famous for their ancient rock engravings and rock paintings. Both have rock art of such great international significance that they are registered on the UNESCO World Heritage List. In both countries therefore, rock art has a high public profile and both governments have made rock art research, conservation and rock art tourism national priorities. However, the research traditions in each region have followed vastly different trajectories.
Our collaboration therefore sought to bring together a series of teams from each region to share their experiences on how we work with rock art. We hoped that our different experiences would prove mutually challenging, and they did. It caused a series of profound debates about what constitutes best practice in the field of rock art studies and these have changed the way we work in tangible ways. We challenged all of the collaborators to report their perspectives at a joint conference in Kimberley, South Africa in 2006 and then to engage in further discussions and workshops before writing up these experiences for this volume. This volume therefore represents the consolidated findings of a prolonged engagement of research and debate in rock art practice. It is therefore predominantly a book about method, and this has great importance in itself, because rock art studies is a growing discipline but one in which we have no internationally agreed upon methods or standards of practice.
We divide the book into three parts, each reflecting one of the core foci of our collaboration:
METHODS OF DOCUMENTING AND RECORDING ROCK ART
All of us face a common problem in our rock art data capture: how do we reduce rock art on a three dimensional surface to a two-dimensional recording in a manner that does not damage the art in any way and without losing any three-dimensional features that may prove vital to interpretation? In both Norway and South Africa research has shown that natural rock features such as cracks and hollows played a fundamental role in determining the placement of rock art imagery.