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Mental health ecosystems research is an emerging discipline which takes a whole-systems approach to mental healthcare, facilitating analysis of the complex environment and context of mental health systems, and translation of this knowledge into policy and practice. Evidence from the local context is needed in the analysis of complex interventions and of geographic variations in the outcomes of care. Technical tools and support have been developed to gather and interpret evidence from the local context and translate it in a meaningful and relevant manner for planners and policy makers to guide their decision-making.
This paper describes initial experimental results from an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation-pulsed atom probe microscope. Femtosecond-pulsed coherent EUV radiation of 29.6 nm wavelength (41.85 eV photon energy), obtained through high harmonic generation in an Ar-filled hollow capillary waveguide, successfully triggered controlled field ion emission from the apex of amorphous SiO2 specimens. The calculated composition is stoichiometric within the error of the measurement and effectively invariant of the specimen base temperature in the range of 25 K to 150 K. Photon energies available in the EUV band are significantly higher than those currently used in the state-of-the-art near-ultraviolet laser-pulsed atom probe, which enables the possibility of additional ionization and desorption pathways. Pulsed coherent EUV light is a new and potential alternative to near-ultraviolet radiation for atom probe tomography.
Name generators (NGs) and position generators (PGs) have been used to measure resources embedded in personal relationships, namely social support and social capital, respectively. Comparisons of these measures adopted NGs that only elicit a small number of alters (max. 5). In this paper we explore whether the measurement of social capital with NGs eliciting larger personal networks (say 15 to 20 alters) gives more comparable results to the PG in terms of occupational prestige. To address this issue, we designed a personal network questionnaire that combined a multiple name generator (MNG) and a PG and enquired about alter characteristics and alter-alter ties for the two sets of nominations simultaneously, allowing their integrated analysis. The questionnaire was implemented in the software EgoNet to collect data from social/environmental entrepreneurs in Spain (N = 30) and Mexico (N = 30. The analysis shows that the two approaches capture mostly non-overlapping sets of personal network members, suggesting that the PG measured in this case available, but not accessed social capital. Remarkably the NG led to a higher average prestige for this occupational group than the PG, but also a lower heterogeneity in prestige. The consequences of using one or another approach and their interpretations are discussed.
Pulsed coherent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is a potential alternative to pulsed near-ultraviolet (NUV) wavelengths for atom probe tomography. EUV radiation has the benefit of high absorption within the first few nm of the sample surface for elements across the entire periodic table. In addition, EUV radiation may also offer athermal field ion emission pathways through direct photoionization or core-hole Auger decay processes, which are not possible with the (much lower) photon energies used in conventional NUV laser-pulsed atom probe. We report preliminary results from what we believe to be the world’s first EUV radiation-pulsed atom probe microscope. The instrument consists of a femtosecond-pulsed, coherent EUV radiation source interfaced to a local electrode atom probe tomograph by means of a vacuum manifold beamline. EUV photon-assisted field ion emission (of substrate atoms) has been demonstrated on various insulating, semiconducting, and metallic specimens. Select examples are shown.
Bankruptcy is a precise legal process defining, ex ante, the rules for allocation of assets when debtors fail to repay their legally constituted debts. Ultimately, these rules determine willingness to lend and to borrow, and thus economic growth. In 1706, Parliament in England passed a bankruptcy statute that allowed, for the first time, bankrupts to exit the state of bankruptcy prior to full repayment of all debts. This represented a fundamental change in English bankruptcy rules: creditors could now choose to discharge a bankrupt. Obviously, bankrupts benefitted from such a discharge, but creditors could also benefit from greater asset revelation. We document that discharge was quickly adopted, and estimate that many bankrupts received a second chance in business.
Soluble phosphate availability is a major limiting factor for plant growth, development, and yield. To assure a constant phosphorous supply, plants employ both high- and low-affinity phosphate acquisition mechanisms. Glyphosate is an herbicide widely used throughout the world, and previous studies have suggested that it can be transported across the plasma membrane via phosphate transporters in herbaceous species. The effects of phosphate status on glyphosate uptake were investigated in the tree grand eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex. Maid.). Eucalyptus grandis’s putative phosphate transporters showed differential gene expression in leaves and roots in response to phosphate limitation. Overall, the expression of high-affinity phosphate transporters increased in phosphate-limiting treatments, particularly in roots. More [14C]glyphosate was absorbed and translocated in phosphate-limiting plants compared with control plants grown in phosphate-replete treatments. In leaf mesophyll protoplast assays, rapid uptake of [14C]glyphosate into protoplasts was observed, and addition of phosphate to the assays competed with [14C]glyphosate uptake. These data indicate that phosphate transporters represent one mechanism of glyphosate uptake in E. grandis. These results have implications for best management practices for weed control and glyphosate application under phosphate application regimes.
Conservation resources are limited, yet an increasing number of species are under threat. Assessing species for their conservation needs is, therefore, a vital first step in identifying and prioritizing species for both ex situ and in situ conservation actions. Using a transparent, logical and objective method, the Conservation Needs Assessment process developed by Amphibian Ark uses current knowledge of species in the wild to determine those with the most pressing conservation needs, and provides a foundation for the development of holistic conservation action plans that combine in situ and ex situ actions as appropriate. These assessments allow us to maximize the impact of limited conservation resources by identifying which measures could best serve those species requiring help. The Conservation Needs Assessment complements the IUCN Red List assessment, and together they provide a more holistic guide to conservation priorities and actions. Conservation Needs Assessments generate national prioritized lists of species recommended for conservation action. These can subsequently be used to assist in the development of species recovery plans and national action plans, or to inform national conservation priorities better. Additional tools that will evaluate the recommendations for ex situ rescues, to determine the best candidates for conservation breeding programmes, are currently under development.
We aimed to assess the maternal and family determinants of four anthropometric typologies at the household level in Colombia for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010.
We classified children <5 years old according to height-for-age Z-score (<−2) and BMI-for-age Z-score (>2) to assess stunting and overweight/obesity, respectively; mothers were categorized according to BMI to assess underweight (<18·5 kg/m2) and overweight/obesity (≥25·0 kg/m2). At the household level, we established four final anthropometric typologies: normal, underweight, overweight and dual-burden households. Separate polytomous logistic regression models for each of the surveyed years were developed to examine several maternal and familial determinants of the different anthropometric typologies.
National and sub-regional (urban and rural) representative samples from Colombia, South America.
Drawing on data from three waves of Colombia’s Demographic and Health Survey/Encuesta Nacional de Salud (DHS/ENDS), we examined individual and household information from mothers (18–49 years) and their children (birth–5 years).
Higher parity was associated with an increased likelihood of overweight and dual burden. Higher levels of maternal education were correlated with lower prevalence of overweight, underweight and dual burden of malnutrition in all data collection waves. In 2010, participation in nutrition programmes for children <5 years, being an indigenous household, food purchase decisions by the mother and food security classification were also associated with the four anthropometric typologies.
Results suggest that maternal and family correlates of certain anthropometric typologies at the household level may be used to better frame policies aimed at improving social conditions and nutrition outcomes.
Aedes aegypti, historically known as yellow fever (YF) mosquito, transmits a great number of other viruses such as Dengue, West Nile, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro and perhaps Oropouche, among others. Well established in Africa and Asia, Aedes mosquitoes are now increasingly invading large parts of the American continent, and hence the risk of urban YF resurgence in the American cities should because of great concern to public health authorities. Although no new urban cycle of YF was reported in the Americas since the end of an Aedes eradication programme in the late 1950s, the high number of non-vaccinated individuals that visit endemic areas, that is, South American jungles where the sylvatic cycle of YF is transmitted by canopy mosquitoes, and return to Aedes-infested urban areas, increases the risk of resurgence of the urban cycle of YF. We present a method to estimate the risk of urban YF resurgence in dengue-endemic cities. This method consists in (1) to estimate the number of Aedes mosquitoes that explains a given dengue outbreak in a given region; (2) calculate the force of infection caused by the introduction of one infective individual per unit area in the endemic area under study; (3) using the above estimates, calculate the probability of at least one autochthonous YF case per unit area produced by one single viraemic traveller per unit area arriving from a YF endemic or epidemic sylvatic region at the city studied. We demonstrate that, provided the relative vector competence, here defined as the capacity to being infected and disseminate the virus, of Ae. aegypti is greater than 0.7 (with respect to dengue), one infected traveller can introduce urban YF in a dengue endemic area.
We present possible conceptual designs of a laser system for driving table-top free-electron lasers based on terahertz acceleration. After discussing the achievable performances of laser amplifiers with Yb:YAG at cryogenic and room temperature and Yb:YLF at cryogenic temperature, we present amplification modules with available results and concepts of amplifier chains based on these laser media. Their performances are discussed in light of the specifications for the tasks within the table-top light source. Technical and engineering challenges, such as cooling, control, synchronization and diagnostics, are outlined. Three concepts for the laser layout feeding the accelerator are eventually derived and presented.
Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a bacterium that accounts for a notable proportion of both clinical and subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs). Thus, the present study explores the function of milk neutrophils and the lymphocyte profile in mammary glands naturally infected with Streptococcus dysgalactiae. Here, we used 32 culture-negative control quarters from eight clinically healthy dairy cows with low somatic cell counts and 13 S. dysgalactiae-infected quarters from six dairy cows. Using flow cytometry, we evaluated the percentage of milk monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils, expression of CD62L, CD11b and CD44 by milk neutrophils, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by milk neutrophils, and neutrophil viability. Furthermore, the percentages of B cell (CD21+) and T lymphocyte subsets (CD3+/CD4+/CD8−; CD3+/CD8+/CD4−; and CD3+/CD8−/CD4−), and the expression of CD25 by T milk lymphocytes (CD3+) and T CD4+ milk cells were also assessed by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies. The present study showed a higher SCC and percentage of milk neutrophils, and a decrease in the percentage of milk monocytes/macrophages from S. dysgalactiae-infected quarters when compared to uninfected ones. We also observed a higher expression of CD11b by milk neutrophils and a tendency toward a decrease in neutrophil apoptosis rate in S. dysgalactiae-infected quarters. In addition, the S. dysgalactiae-infected quarters had higher percentages of milk T cells (CD3+) and their subset CD3+CD8+CD4− cells. Overall, the present study provided new insights into S. dysgalactiae IMIs, including distinct lymphocyte profiles, and a tendency toward an inhibition of apoptosis in milk neutrophils.
Collisionless shocks are key processes in astrophysics where the energy dissipation at the shock front is provided by collective plasma effects rather than particle collisions. While numerous simulations and laser-plasma experiments have shown they can result from the encounter of two plasma shells, a first principle theory of the shock formation is still lacking. In this respect, a series of 2D Particle-In-Cells simulations have been performed of two identical cold colliding pair plasmas. The simplicity of this system allows for an accurate analytical tracking of the physics. To start with, the Weibel-filamentation instability is triggered in the overlapping region, which generates a turbulent region after a saturation time τs. The incoming flow then piles-up in this region, building-up the shock density region according to some nonlinear processes, which will be the subject of future works. By evaluating the seed field giving rise to the instability, we derive an analytical expression for τs in good agreement with simulations. In view of the importance of the filamentation instability, we show a static magnetic field can cancel it if and only if it is perfectly aligned with the flow.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multi-dimensional hand hygiene approach in 19 limited-resource countries and to analyze predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance.
An observational, prospective, cohort, interventional, before-and-after study from April 1999 through December 2011. The study was divided into 2 periods: a 3-month baseline period and a 7-year follow-up period.
Ninety-nine intensive care unit (ICU) members of the INICC in Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Greece, India, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macedonia, Mexico, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, and Turkey.
Healthcare workers at 99 ICU members of the INICC.
A multidimensional hand hygiene approach was used, including (1) administrative support, (2) supplies availability, (3) education and training, (4) reminders in the workplace, (5) process surveillance, and (6) performance feedback. Observations were made for hand hygiene compliance in each ICU, during randomly selected 30-minute periods.
A total of 149,727 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed. Overall hand hygiene compliance increased from 48.3% to 71.4% (P < .01). Univariate analysis indicated that several variables were significantly associated with poor hand hygiene compliance, including males versus females (63% vs 70%; P<.001), physicians versus nurses (62% vs 72%; P<.001), and adult versus neonatal ICUs (67% vs 81%; P<.001), among others.
Adherence to hand hygiene increased by 48% with the INICC approach. Specific programs directed to improve hand hygiene for variables found to be predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance should be implemented.