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Through autonomic and affective mechanisms, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) may disrupt the capacity to regulate negative emotions, increasing craving and exacerbating risk for opioid use disorder (OUD) among individuals with chronic pain who are receiving long-term opioid analgesic pharmacotherapy. This study examined associations between ACEs, heart rate variability (HRV) during emotion regulation, and negative emotional cue-elicited craving among a sample of female opioid-treated chronic pain patients at risk for OUD. A sample of women (N = 36, mean age = 51.2 ± 9.5) with chronic pain receiving long-term opioid analgesic pharmacotherapy (mean morphine equivalent daily dose = 87.1 ± 106.9 mg) were recruited from primary care and pain clinics to complete a randomized task in which they viewed and reappraised negative affective stimuli while HRV and craving were assessed. Both ACEs and duration of opioid use significantly predicted blunted HRV during negative emotion regulation and increased negative emotional cue-elicited craving. Analysis of study findings from a multiple-levels-of-analysis approach suggest that exposure to childhood abuse occasions later emotion dysregulation and appetitive responding toward opioids in negative affective contexts among adult women with chronic pain, and thus this vulnerable clinical population should be assessed for OUD risk when initiating a course of extended, high-dose opioids for pain management.
This study examined insomnia in the context of breast cancer, both as an independent symptom and as a component of a symptom cluster that includes depression, anxiety, fatigue, and pain.
Women with a history of breast cancer currently taking an aromatase inhibitor and who had completed cancer treatment at least one month prior to enrollment were included (n = 413). Participants completed validated measures of insomnia, fatigue, pain, depression, and anxiety. Factor analysis was utilized to examine the extent to which these symptoms could be represented by common latent factors. Insomnia severity was then separated into a symptom cluster component (I–SC) and an insomnia-unique (I–U) component. The associations between each insomnia component and demographic and clinical factors were examined in multivariate models.
A single-factor solution provided the best fit to the symptom measures. Some 53.3% of the variance in insomnia severity was captured by this symptom cluster (I–SC), with the remaining 43.7% being unique to insomnia (I–U). Unique patterns of demographic factors (e.g., age and body–mass index), but not clinical factors, were associated with each insomnia measure.
Significance of results:
Approximately 50% of insomnia severity was related to the symptom cluster, with the rest being unique to insomnia. Different sociodemographic risk factors were related to the different insomnia measures. Stronger underlying foundations for the mechanisms of each component could lead to refined diagnoses and targeted interventions for addressing the overall insomnia burden in cancer patients.
Depression is expensive to treat, but providing ineffective treatment is more expensive. Such is the case for many patients who do not respond to antidepressant medication.
To assess the cost-effectiveness of cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) plus usual care for primary care patients with treatment-resistant depression compared with usual care alone.
Economic evaluation at 12 months alongside a randomised controlled trial. Cost-effectiveness assessed using a cost-consequences framework comparing cost to the health and social care provider, patients and society, with a range of outcomes. Cost-utility analysis comparing health and social care costs with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs).
The mean cost of CBT per participant was £910. The difference in QALY gain between the groups was 0.057, equivalent to 21 days a year of good health. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was £14 911 (representing a 74% probability of the intervention being cost-effective at the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence threshold of £20 000 per QALY). Loss of earnings and productivity costs were substantial but there was no evidence of a difference between intervention and control groups.
The addition of CBT to usual care is cost-effective in patients who have not responded to antidepressants. Primary care physicians should therefore be encouraged to refer such individuals for CBT.
Background: The use of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) self-help materials for depression is increasingly recommended as part of stepped care service models. Such resources can be delivered by both new specialist workers (such as the IAPT services in England), or by introducing this style of working into an existing workforce as described in the current paper. The Structured Psychosocial InteRventions in Teams (SPIRIT) course consists of 38.5 hours of workshops, and 5 hours of clinical supervision in the use of CBT self-help (CBSH). Method: This study describes an evaluation of the effectiveness of the course when offered to community and inpatient mental health staff from a wide range of adult and older adult mental health teams in NHS Greater Glasgow Mental Health Division. Results: Training resulted in both subjective and objective knowledge and skills gains at the end of training that were largely sustained 3 months later. At that time point, 40% of staff still reported use of CBSH in the last week. Satisfaction with the training is high, using validated rating scales. Conclusions: The SPIRIT training has gone some way to increasing access to CBSH for use in everyday clinical practice.
We examined beliefs about depression in patients and their partners and explored the impact of beliefs on perceptions of marital functioning, level of distress and caregiving in partners, and clinical outcome of major depression. Fifteen patients meeting criteria for major depressive disorder and their co-habiting spouses were interviewed at baseline using the Reasons for Depression Questionnaire (Addis, Truax and Jacobson, 1995) and measures of symptom severity, distress, caregiver consequences and marital satisfaction. Outcome was assessed at 6 months. Identifying biological reasons for depression was significantly associated with patient severity of depression and with caregiver burden. Caregiver distress was significantly associated with endorsement of interpersonal reasons for depression. Concordance in reason giving between patients and partners was significantly associated with a good outcome. This is the first study to show that beliefs about depression held by patients and their partners may have an impact on the clinical outcome of major depression.
The porphyrias are a group of rare hereditary metabolic disorders where there is an excess formation and excretion of porphyrins or their precursors. Type IIA, acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), has an estimated prevalence of one to eight per 100,000 in the general population but is thought to have a higher prevalence in psychiatric patients. AIP can present with a variety of psychiatric symptoms, often misdiagnosed. Associated neuropathological changes including focal cerebral ischaemic lesions have been found. However, to our knowledge, no case of dementia and AIP has been described. We present the case of a 56 year old man with a five-year history of progressive cognitive decline, diagnosed with AIP at an advanced stage of dementia. Whether AIP contributed to the dementia or is a coincidental finding is unknown. However treatment of AIP in this case resulted in some improvement in the patient's cognitive state.
In the first three papers of this series (Williams & Garland, 2002a, b; Wright et al, 2002), we looked at the different areas of human experience that alter during times of mental illness. The Five Areas Assessment model (Williams, 2001; see Williams & Garland, 2002a, Fig. 1) provides a clear summary of the range of problems and difficulties faced by individuals in each of the following domains:
1 life situation, relationships, practical problems
In the first two articles of this series (Williams & Garland, 2002; Wright et al, 2002), we looked at the different areas of human experience that alter during times of mental illness. The Five Areas Assessment model (Williams, 2001; see also Fig. 1 of Williams & Garland, 2002) provides a clear summary of the range of problems and difficulties faced by the individual in each of the following domains:
1 life situation, relationships, practical problems
In the first article in this series (Williams & Garland, 2002) we encouraged readers to try out elements of the Five Areas model of cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) with some patients. Before we further discuss the model it might be of value to reflect on your experiences. If you did try, was it successful? Did it teach you anything about your clinical skills and the patients' problems? Can you build on this experience and use the Five Areas model more widely in your practice? If you did not try this out, why not? Were you prevented by internal factors (too busy, could not see the patient, thought you could not do it) or problems beyond your control (the patient failed to turn up)? How can you overcome these obstacles?
Cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is a shortterm, problem-focused psychosocial intervention. Evidence from randomised controlled trials and metaanalyses shows that it is an effective intervention for depression, panic disorder, generalised anxiety and obsessive–compulsive disorder (Department of Health, 2001). Increasing evidence indicates its usefulness in a growing range of other psychiatric disorders such as health anxiety/hypochondriasis, social phobia, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. CBT is also of proven benefit to patients who attend psychiatric clinics (Paykel et al, 1999). The model is fully compatible with the use of medication, and studies examining depression have tended to confirm that CBT used together with antidepressant medication is more effective than either treatment alone (Blackburn et al, 1981) and that CBT treatment may lead to a reduction in future relapse (Evans et al, 1992). Generic CBT skills provide a readily accessible model for patient assessment and management and can usefully inform general clinical skills in everyday practice.
The existing scale for assessing competence in cognitive therapy (CTS) dates from 1988 and only the
previous version of 1980 has been validated to any extent. A revised version, the CTS-R, was devised to improve on
the CTS by: eliminating overlap between items, improving on the scaling system, and defining items more clearly.
Kolb's well-known educational model was used as a guideline. In the new 14-item scale, three new items measure
general therapeutic flair, the facilitation of emotional expression, and therapist's non-verbal behaviours (optional). We hypothesized that the CTS-R would prove more user friendly and demonstrate satisfactory reliability and validity. Twenty-one mental health professionals undergoing training in cognitive therapy provided 102 video-tapes of therapy
with 34 patients, reflecting three stages of therapy. The tapes were rated by four expert raters, in a balanced design.
The CTS-R showed high internal consistency and adequate average inter-rater reliability. Reliability for individual
items varied widely among pairs of raters. Validity was demonstrated by improved ratings of competence for trainees
who saw patients early and later during the course of training. Although raters found the CTS-R a more useful tool
than the CTS and satisfactory reliability and validity were demonstrated, more refinement is needed in item definition.
The study has led to modifications in the CTS-R, which are in the process of evaluation.