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To validate a novel photographic portion guide as a tool to estimate consumption of fish and shrimp. Application of such a validated tool can facilitate accurate individual and community seafood intake assessments and provide meaningful data relative to health benefits and hazard assessment, particularly in response to environmental contamination and disasters.
A photographic fish and shrimp portion guide presenting a stepped range of cooked portion sizes was used by participants to estimate their typical portion sizes. Participants selected their typical portion size from the photographic guide and also from a selection of freshly cooked reference meals. Photographic portions selections were compared with plated reference portions for each participant.
Academic sensory testing laboratory in the USA.
Separate groups of adults (25–64 years) contributed to fish (n 54) and shrimp (n 53) portion size comparison studies.
In the fish study, there was no difference between photographic portion selections (6·59 (sd 2·65) oz (186·8 (sd 75·1) g)) and reference plate selections (7·04 (sd 2·63) oz (199·6 (sd 74·6) g); P=0·384). Similarly in the shrimp study, there was no difference between photographic portion selections (6·88 (sd 3·40) oz (195·0 (sd 96·4) g)) and reference plate selections (6·06 (sd 2·65) oz (171·8 (sd 75·1) g); P=0·159). Photographic portions predicted plated reference portions for both fish and shrimp based on linear regression (P<0·001). Bland–Altman plot analyses showed good agreement between the two methods, <1 oz (<28·3 g) bias, in both fish and shrimp studies.
This validated photographic seafood portion guide provides a utilitarian tool for accurately assessing fish and shrimp intake in a community setting.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.