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Windpumping has been identified as a process that could potentially enhance sublimation of surface snow at high forcing frequency and spawn air movement deeper in firn at lower frequencies. We performed an experiment to examine the relationship between high-frequency wind and pressure measurements within the top meter of an alpine snowpack and compared experimental results with two theoretical predictions. We find that both theoretical predictions underestimate high-frequency perturbation pressure attenuation with depth in the near-surface snowpack and the discrepancy between theory and measurement increases with perturbation pressure frequency. The impact of this result for near-surface snow is that potential enhanced sublimation will occur over a shallower snow depth than these two theories predict. Correspondingly, interstitial air mixing at depth in firn will be driven by lower frequencies than these two theories predict. While direct measurement of these energy-rich lower frequencies is beyond the scope of this paper, stationary pressure measurements validate the presence of a pressure field that could drive near-surface circulation.
Health-beneficial effects of adhering to a healthy Nordic diet index have been suggested. However, it has not been examined to what extent the included dietary components are exclusively related to the Nordic countries or if they are part of other European diets as well, suggesting a broader preventive potential. The present study describes the intake of seven a priori defined healthy food items (apples/pears, berries, cabbages, dark bread, shellfish, fish and root vegetables) across ten countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and examines their consumption across Europe.
Cross-sectional study. A 24 h dietary recall was administered through a software program containing country-specific recipes. Sex-specific mean food intake was calculated for each centre/country, as well as percentage of overall food groups consumed as healthy Nordic food items. All analyses were weighted by day and season of data collection.
Multi-centre, European study.
Persons (n 36 970) aged 35–74 years, constituting a random sample of 519 978 EPIC participants.
The highest intakes of the included diet components were: cabbages and berries in Central Europe; apples/pears in Southern Europe; dark bread in Norway, Denmark and Greece; fish in Southern and Northern countries; shellfish in Spain; and root vegetables in Northern and Central Europe. Large inter-centre variation, however, existed in some countries.
Dark bread, root vegetables and fish are strongly related to a Nordic dietary tradition. Apples/pears, berries, cabbages, fish, shellfish and root vegetables are broadly consumed in Europe, and may thus be included in regional public health campaigns.
Purpose: To determine disease-free and overall survival of neuroendocrine small cell cancer of cervix treated at the Northern Ireland Cancer centre between 1999 and 2010.
Materials and methods: A retrospective review of all patients diagnosed and treated with neuroendocrine small cell cancer of cervix in Northern Ireland. Details of treatment modality including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery were recorded.
Results: Fifteen patients diagnosed with neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma (NSCC) of cervix were identified between 1999 and 2010, twelve with disease localised to the pelvis and three with metastatic disease. Three-year overall survival for all patients was 65% and disease-free survival was 45% for all patients. In patients with pelvic confined disease 3-year overall survival was 79% and disease-free survival was 57%. Median disease-free and overall survival was 30 and 39.6 months respectively. These survival rates compare very favourably to those reported in the literature. Stage of disease at diagnosis was the main determinant of survival.
Conclusion: Local control and survival can be achieved in NSCC of patients with a combination of irradiation and platinum-based chemotherapy. Stage of disease determines outcomes.
Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130·9 and 97·0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36·8 mg/d in men from Umeå and 37·2 mg/d in women from Malmö (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46·6 to 52·9 % depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38·5 to 47·3 % and flavones from 5·8 to 8·6 %. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.
Ten neonates developed blood stream infection with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacter aerogenes in a neonatal intensive care unit in Fiji. The source of the outbreak was traced to a bag of contaminated normal saline in the ward, which was used for multiple patients. All isolates recovered from patients were indistinguishable from the bacteria recovered from the normal saline by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The outbreak was controlled using simple infection control practices such as reinforcement of strict hand hygiene policy, provision of single use vials of normal saline, and strict aseptic technique for injections.
Four semi-hard Italian goats' milk cheeses, Flor di Capra (FC), Caprino di Cavalese (CC), Caprino di Valsassina (CV) and Capritilla (C), were compared for compositional, microbiological, biochemical, volatile profile and sensory characteristics. Mean values for the gross composition in part differed between cheeses. At the end of ripening, cheeses contained 7·98−8·51 log10 cfu/g of non-starter lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus paracasei, Lb. casei and Lb. plantarum were dominant in almost all cheeses. As shown by the Principal Component Analysis of RP-FPLC data for the pH 4·6-soluble fractions and by the determination of free amino acids, secondary proteolysis of CC and CV mainly differed from the other two cheeses. A total of 72 volatile components were identified by steam distillation-extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Free fatty acids and esters qualitatively and quantitatively differentiated the profile of CV and CC, respectively. The lowest concentrations of volatile components characterized FC. Descriptive sensory analysis using 17 flavour attributes was carried out by a trained panel. Different flavour attributes distinguished the four goats' cheeses and relationships were found with volatile components, biochemical characteristics and technology.
This study is a comparative analysis and meta-analysis of three randomized clinical trials. Children with spastic diplegia received either ‘selective’ dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) plus physiotherapy (SDR+PT) or PT without SDR (PT-only). Common outcome measures were used for spasticity (Ashworth scale) and function (Gross Motor Function Measure [GMFM]). Baseline and 9- to 12-month outcome data were pooled (n=90). At baseline, 82 children were under 8 years old and 65 had Gross Motor Function Classification System level II or III disability. Pooled Ashworth data analysis confirmed a reduction of spasticity with SDR+PT (mean change score difference –1.2; Wilcoxon p<0.001). Pooled GMFM data revealed greater functional improvement with SDR+PT (difference in change score +4.0, p=0.008). Multivariate analysis in the SDR+PT group revealed a direct relationship between percentage of dorsal root tissue transected and functional improvement. SDR+PT is efficacious in reducing spasticity in children with spastic diplegia and has a small positive effect on gross motor function.
The sol-gel process opens new possibilities in the field of biotechnologies. Sol-gel glasses are formed at room temperature via the polymerization of molecular precursors. Enzymes can be added to the solution of precursors and trapped within the growing silica network. Small substrate molecules can diffuse through the pores allowing reactions to be performed in-situ, within the silica gels. Enzyme are encased by the hydrated silica in a cage tailored to their size, they retain their biocatalytic activity and may even be stabilized within the sol-gel matrix.
Whole cell bacteria have also been immobilized within sol-gel glasses. They behave as a "bag of enzymes" and their membrane protects enzymes against denaturation and leaching. The cellular organization of bacteria cells is preserved upon encapsulation. Experiments performed with Escherichia coli induced to β-galactosidase show that they still exhibit noticeable enzymatic activity. Some degradation of the cell walls may even occur increasing the “measured” activity. However silica gels made from aqueous precursors seem to prevent bacteria from natural degradation upon ageing.
Antibody-antigen recognition has been shown to be feasible within sol-gel matrices. Trapped antibodies bind specifically the corresponding haptens and can be used for the detection of traces of chemicals. Even whole cell protozoa have been encapsulated without any alteration of their cellular organization. For medical applications, trapped parasitic protozoa have been used as antigens for blood tests with human sera. Antigen-antibody interactions were followed by the so-called Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assays (ELISA).
This report is a summary of the methods and findings of a research project that evaluated the social and economic benefits of meteorological services in Australia. The meteorological services evaluated were the basic public weather services and several specialist user-pay and commercial services used by business firms in several sectors of the national economy. Overall, the results indicated that the quality of the selected services was high. In addition, the benefits of these services were extensive, resulting in high benefit-cost ratios.
We have investigated the spreading behavior of solvent droplets on a bulk water support using solvents with different vapor pressures and spreading coefficients. Instead of seeding the surface with tracer particles, as is usually done to track moving fronts, we employ laser shadowgraphy to visualize the entire surface of the spreading film including the leading edge. For non-volatile systems it has previously been shown that the leading edge advances in time as t3/4. We find that volatile systems with positive initial spreading coefficients exhibit two spreading fronts, both of which demonstrate power law growth but with exponents closer to 1/2. Surprisingly, differences in the liquid vapor pressure or the spreading coefficient seem only to effect the speed of advance but not the value of the exponent. We are presently investigating the behavior of the subsurface flow to determine the mechanism leading to the smaller spreading exponent.
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