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Australia has committed to reducing emissions under the Paris Agreement by 2030, in alignment with the United Nations' (UN) Sustainability Development Goal (SDG) climate action. This article investigates the responses of Australian high-emission businesses to Australian government action and legislation in relation to climate change, specifically the carbon tax, and how this knowledge can assist in delineating future carbon legislation. A qualitative study of the responses of 17 high-emission businesses and three industry associations to carbon legislation during the implementation of the carbon tax in Australia identified the use of resistive, reactive or cooperative strategies by the businesses. Issues related to carbon legislation identified by businesses included differences in time orientation, multiple regulations, political uncertainty, international positioning and the need for long-term and consolidated policies. Given these findings, this article argues that well-designed top-down legislative measures are necessary to steer businesses towards a carbon-neutral regime.
The duration of incoming quitline calls may serve as a crude proxy for the potential amount of reactive counseling provided.
To explore whether call duration may be useful for monitoring quitline capacity and service delivery.
Using data on the duration of incoming quitline calls to 1-800-QUIT-NOW from 2012 through 2015, we examined national trends and state-level variation in average call duration. We estimated a regression model of average call duration as a function of total incoming calls, nationally and by state, controlling for confounders.
From 2012 through 2015, average call duration was 11.4 min, nationally, and was 10 min or longer in 33 states. Average call duration was significantly correlated with quitline service provider. Higher incoming call volume was significantly associated with lower average call duration in 32 states and higher average call duration in five states (P-value <0.05). The relationship between call volume and call duration was not correlated with quitline service provider.
Variation in average call duration across states likely reflects different service delivery models. Average call duration was associated with call volume in many states. Significant changes in call duration may highlight potential quitline capacity issues that warrant further investigation.
Using the recently developed techniques of electron tomography, we have explored the first stages of disfiguring formation of zinc soaps in modern oil paintings. The formation of complexes of zinc ions with fatty acids in paint layers is a major threat to the stability and appearance of many late 19th and early 20th century oil paintings. Moreover, the occurrence of zinc soaps in oil paintings leading to defects is disturbingly common, but the chemical reactions and migration mechanisms leading to large zinc soap aggregates or zones remain poorly understood. State-of-the-art scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy techniques, primarily developed for biological specimens, have enabled us to visualize the earliest stages of crystalline zinc soap growth in a reconstructed zinc white (ZnO) oil paint sample. In situ sectioning techniques and sequential imaging within the SEM allowed three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of sample morphology. Improvements in the detection and discrimination of backscattered electrons enabled us to identify local precipitation processes with small atomic number contrast. The SEM images were correlated to low-dose and high-sensitivity TEM images, with high-resolution tomography providing unprecedented insight into the structure of nucleating zinc soaps at the molecular level. The correlative approach applied here to study phase separation, and crystallization processes specific to a problem in art conservation creates possibilities for visualization of phase formation in a wide range of soft materials.
The present study compared executive dysfunction among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), also called secondary ADHD (S-ADHD), pre-injury ADHD and children with TBI only (i.e., no ADHD). Youth aged 6–16 years admitted for TBI to five trauma centers were enrolled (n=177) and evaluated with a semi-structured psychiatric interview scheduled on three occasions (within 2 weeks of TBI, i.e., baseline assessment for pre-injury status; 6-months and 12-months post-TBI). This permitted the determination of 6- and 12-month post-injury classifications of membership in three mutually exclusive groups (S-ADHD; pre-injury ADHD; TBI-only). Several executive control measures were administered. Unremitted S-ADHD was present in 17/141 (12%) children at the 6-month assessment, and in 14/125 (11%) children at 12-months post-injury. The study found that children with S-ADHD exhibited deficient working memory, attention, and psychomotor speed as compared to children with pre-injury ADHD. Furthermore, the children with S-ADHD and the children with TBI-only were impaired compared to the children with pre-injury ADHD with regard to planning. No group differences related to response inhibition emerged. Age, but not injury severity, gender, or adaptive functioning was related to executive function outcome. Neuropsychological sequelae distinguish among children who develop S-ADHD following TBI and those with TBI only. Moreover, there appears to be a different pattern of executive control performance in those who develop S-ADHD than in children with pre-injury ADHD suggesting that differences exist in the underlying neural mechanisms that define each disorder, underscoring the need to identify targeted treatment interventions. (JINS, 2014, 20, 971–981)
To provide an independent monitoring report examining the ongoing impact of Australian self-regulatory pledges on food and drink advertising to children on commercial television.
Analysis of food advertisements across comparable sample time periods in April/May 2006, 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2011. The main outcome measure comprised change in the mean rate of non-core food advertisements from 2006 to 2011.
Sydney free-to-air television channels.
Televised food advertisements.
In 2011 the rate of non-core food advertisements was not significantly different from that in 2006 or 2010 (3·2/h v. 4·1/h and 3·1/h), although there were variations across the intervening years. The rate of fast-food advertising in 2010 was significantly higher than in 2006 (1·8/h v. 1·1/h, P < 0·001), but the same as that in 2011 (1·5/h).
The frequency of non-core food advertising on Sydney television has remained essentially unchanged between 2006 and 2011, despite the implementation of two industry self-regulatory pledges. The current study illustrates the value of independent monitoring as a basic requirement of any responsive regulatory approach.
The Parkes 64-m telescope was used to study the OH mainline polarisation properties at 1665 and 1667 MHz for a sample of 36 evolved stars, identified by their far-infrared and OH 1612 MHz maser properties as likely post-AGB stars.
The introduction of the Resource Description and Access cataloguing code to replace the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules is considered by Ann Chapman, the Research Officer at UKOLN. She explains why the latter was becoming unsuitable for the digital age whilst the former has been specifically developed to deal with all types of media.
During the 1960s and 1970s, aerial reconnaissance on the northern side of the confluence of the Rivers Trent, Tame, and Mease in Staffordshire revealed a cluster of features indicative of prehistoric ceremonial activity. Some of the features within the cluster are morphologically unique, but a lack of previous investigation meant that their dating, phasing, and function were unknown. This paper details the results of a multi-disciplinary approach to addressing these questions about the complex and to place it into its contemporary landscape context. The results indicate that the complex represents numerous phases of symbolic and ceremonial activity extending from the late Neolithic and into the early Bronze Age. Furthermore, it has shown how these structures fit within a wider landscape of ceremonial activity extending back to the earlier Neolithic and continuing into the Bronze Age.
Aging well is new, again. The recent interest is part of a 50-year period of research. Contradictory conceptualizations of aging well create an opportunity to consider assumptions that underlie the concept. In this paper, through the construction of an aging-well, theorizing narrative, an underlying assumption is identified in past aging-well conceptual frameworks: to age well is to achieve self-integration in relation to particular sets of resources or forms of engagement. The narrative relates how more recent aging-well theorizing is being shaped by a growing interest in later-life meaning-making. Evidence is presented of a contemporary shift toward describing aging well as the negotiation of the co-construction and reconstruction of multiple selves in an ongoing, open-ended process of meaning-making amid later-life events and transitions. The paper concludes with implications for future research.
To compare the microbial contamination rate of infusate in the intravenous tubing of newborns receiving lipid therapy, replacing the intravenous delivery system at 72-hour versus 24-hour intervals.
Infants requiring intravenous lipid therapy were randomly assigned to have intravenous sets changed on a 72- or a 24-hour schedule, in a 3:1 ratio, in order to compare the infusate contamination rates in an equivalent number of tubing sets.
A 35-bed, teaching, referral, neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU).
All neonates admitted to the NICU for whom intravenous lipid was ordered.
Patients were randomized in pharmacy, on receipt of the order for intravenous lipid therapy, to either 72- or 24-hour administration set changes, and followed until 1 week after discontinuation of lipids or discharge from the NICU. Microbial contamination of the infusate was assessed in both groups at the time of administration set changes. Contamination rates were analyzed separately for the lipid and amino acid-glucose tubing sets. Patient charts were reviewed for clinical and epidemiological data, including birth weight, gestational age, gender, age at start of lipid therapy, duration of parenteral nutrition, and type of intravenous access.
During the study period, 1,101 and 1,112 sets were sampled in the 72- and 24-hour groups, respectively. Microbial contamination rates were higher in die 72-hour group than the 24-hour group for lipid infusions (39/1,101 [3.54%] vs 15/1,112 [1.35%]; P=.001) and for amino acid infusions (12/1,093 [1.10%] vs 4/1,103 [0.36%]; P=.076). Logistic regression analysis controlling for birth weight, gestational age, and type of venous access showed that only the tubing change interval was significanfly associated with lipid set contaminations (odds ratio, 2.69; P=.0013). The rate of blood cultures ordered was higher in die 72-versus the 24-hour group (6.11 vs 4.99 per 100 patient days of total parenteral nutrition; P=.017), and a higher proportion of infants randomized to the 72-hour group died (8% vs 4%; P=.05), although the excess deaths could not clearly be attributed to bacteremia.
Microbial contamination of infusion sets is significantiy more frequent with 72- than witii 24-hour set changes in neonates receiving lipid solutions. This may be associated with an increased mortality rate.
An experiment to measure the variation in the phenological and apical development ofwinter wheat (cv. Avalon) in England and Scotland is described. Ten sites which ranged from Aberdeen (57·2° N), the most northerly, to Newton Abbot (50·6° N), the most southerly, were included in the survey, and at each site seed was hand-sown in mid-September, October and November 1983. Developmental stages and sampling procedures were precisely defined to ensure uniformity in scoring by the observers at each site. Temperatures during the growing season were in line with the long-term means, though spring was cooler at all sites and summer warmer at most. The range of monthly-mean temperatures between sites was about the same as the difference between consecutive months. The method of analysis of development rates and durations was in terms of thermal time, modified by sensitivity to photoperiod and a vernalization requirement that slowed early development until a number of days of low temperatures had been experienced. In general, crops at northern sites developed more slowly than those in the south and particularly the south-west of England. There was less variation in the timing of apical stages for later sowings. Developmental rates responded linearly to temperature and photoperiod, with the base temperature increasing for later phases of development. The effect of photoperiod in modifying the rate of development was apparent for all developmental phases from emergence to anthesis, longer days accelerating development, but there was no effect on the duration of the grain-filling period. Vernalization exerted its effect solely within the phase from emergence to double ridge, and had a major influence on the variation between sites only for the first sowing.
The initiation of leaf and spikelet primordia was studied at sites ranging in latitude from Newton Abbot (50·6°N) to Aberdeen (57·2°N) in crops sown in the middle of September, October and November 1983. The rate of primordium initiation tended to decrease from south to north but there were also marked differences between quite close sites.
The rate of leaf initiation increased with temperature but photoperiod had little effect; the rate of spikelet initiation was affected both by temperature and by photoperiod. There were differences in the total number of leaves initiated which were only partlyexplained by differences in vernalization.
Expressing leaf and spikelet initiation rates in terms of thermal and photo-thermal time respectively showed a constant rate of leaf initiation and a constant and more rapid rate of spikelet initiation.
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