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Eating disorders are prevalent, potentially lethal, and treatable, yet remain underprioritised within clinical care, research and policy. Further, with rising public health focus on obesity, there is heightened risk for inadvertent exacerbation of disordered eating and further marginalisation of these serious mental disorders. This editorial calls for corrective action.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
A nuclear detonation in a US city would have profound psychological, social, and behavioral effects. This article reviews the scientific literature on human responses to radiation incidents and disasters in general, and examines potential behavioral health care provider (BHCP) contributions in the hours and days after a nuclear detonation. In the area directly affected by the blast, the immediate overarching goal of BHCP interventions is the support of lifesaving activities and the prevention of additional casualties from fallout. These interventions include 6 broad categories: promoting appropriate protective actions, discouraging dangerous behaviors, managing patient/survivor flow to facilitate the best use of scarce resources, supporting first responders, assisting with triage, and delivering palliative care when appropriate. At more distant sites, BHCP should work with medical providers to support hospitalized survivors of the detonation. Recommendations are also made on BHCP interventions later in the response phase and during recovery.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2011;5:S54-S64)
This paper provides new evidence and analysis of gradual and U-shaped phonological learning. Using a rich longitudinal corpus from Trevor (Compton & Streeter 1977, Pater 1997b) we demonstrate that some of Trevor's consonant harmony follows a statistically significant U-shaped trajectory, in contrast to the more typical S-shaped progression of his complex onsets. We then analyse these two developmental paths using an OT model of phonological acquisition (Hayes 2004, Prince & Tesar 2004, Tessier 2007, 2009), in which the learner's variation within and across stages is the effect of stored old productions rather than a variable grammar. The decrease in Trevor's faithfulness to place of articulation due to consonant harmony is attributed to the induction of a new constraint during the course of learning. Our analysis is paired with a computational implementation, showing how competition between old forms and the current grammar allows the model to derive both S-shaped and U-shaped patterns.
Mass media exposure has been associated with an increased risk of eating pathology. It is unknown whether indirect media exposure – such as the proliferation of media exposure in an individual's social network – is also associated with eating disorders.
To test hypotheses that both individual (direct) and social network (indirect) mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in Fiji.
We assessed several kinds of mass media exposure, media influence, cultural orientation and eating pathology by self-report among adolescent female ethnic Fijians (n = 523). We fitted a series of multiple regression models of eating pathology, assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE–Q), in which mass media exposures, sociodemographic characteristics and body mass index were entered as predictors.
Both direct and indirect mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in unadjusted analyses, whereas in adjusted analyses only social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology. This result was similar when eating pathology was operationalised as either a continuous or a categorical dependent variable (e.g. odds ratio OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.15–2.23 relating social network media exposure to upper-quartile EDE–Q scores). Subsequent analyses pointed to individual media influence as an important explanatory variable in this association.
Social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology in this Fijian study sample, independent of direct media exposure and other cultural exposures. Findings warrant further investigation of its health impact in other populations.
Dr. Anderson-Fye's presentation of the case of emergent posttraumatic stress symptoms in a Belizean adolescent girl provides a textured ethnographic and clinical account of resilience in the setting of personal and social turbulence. This case describes the identification of, elaboration of, and social response to symptoms generated in the context of traumatic experience in a young adolescent girl. In doing so, it suggests the complex dimensions whereby the transformation of the cultural landscape both results in extraordinary need and presents opportunities for large-scale public health interventions that mobilize community and family-based resources for prevention, education, and enhanced access to care.
Dr. Anderson-Fye notes in her introduction that social and economic changes associated with globalization have been associated with an increase in diagnosed mental illness among adolescents. The social turbulence that frequently accompanies globalization augments the vulnerability of this age group, a group that is not only in the midst of a rather perilous developmental crossing, but that also has limited access to and visibility in health services across many settings.
The case involves an adolescent Belizean girl – Maria, a pseudonym – who eventually receives a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This young adolescent, Maria, participated in a series of ethnographic interviews begun at her school in 1996 when she was 12 years old. She was apparently well-liked, yet socially isolated inasmuch as she described a “loneliness that she felt was unfillable because she had so much to share but felt no one could understand.”
The excavation of the Wattendorf-Motzenstein Corded Ware settlement in Franconia (Germany) has yielded new information with regard to the architecture, economy, and ritual activities, as well as the social organisation of Final Neolithic groups in Central Europe. The settlement is dated to 2660–2470 cal BC and was an agrarian community. Detailed analyses of the material culture combined with biological and pedological parameters allowed new interpretations regarding Corded Ware economies as well as domestic and ritual spheres. The settlement contained about 35 individuals at most, who were organised in fewer than eight households. The exceptional results obtained call for further research strategies to be developed.
There are no published studies evaluating the impact of introduction of television on disordered eating in media-naïve populations.
To assess the impact of novel, prolonged exposure to television on disordered eating attitudes and behaviours among ethnic Fijian adolescent girls.
A prospective, multi-wave cross-sectional design was used to compare two samples of Fijian schoolgirls before and after prolonged regional television exposure with a modified 26-item eating attitudes test, supplemented with a semi-structured interview to confirm self-reported symptoms. Narrative data from a subset of respondents from the exposed sample were analysed for content relating television exposure to body image concerns.
Key indicators of disordered eating were significantly more prevalent following exposure. Narrative data revealed subjects' interest in weight loss as a means of modelling themselves after television characters.
This naturalistic experiment suggests a negative impact of television upon disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in a media-naïve population.
Leafy spurge control with four herbicides was evaluated at nine sites in six Great Plains states. Sulfometuron alone did not control leafy spurge satisfactorily 12 mo after treatment (MAT). Sulfometuron plus dicamba at 105 plus 2240 g ai ha−1, when spring- or fall-applied, averaged 26 and 89% control and 31 and 86% grass injury, respectively, 12 MAT. Sulfometuron plus picloram at 105 plus 560 g ai ha−1, when spring- or fall-applied, averaged 63 and 92% control and 19 and 89% grass injury, respectively, 12 MAT.
In this paper a numerical model for the viscous flow past a cylinder in a rotating frame is discussed when both the Rossby number Ro and Ekman number E are small. The results of this model are analysed and compared to an inviscid study by Page (1987) applicable in the limit E → 0 with Ro = O(E½). The detailed structure of the separated flow is also examined and compared to the proposals for the higher-order flow in E¼ layers in Page (1987) which were based, in part, on the theory of Smith (1979, 1985) for the non-rotating flow past bluff bodies. Some discrepancies between this theory and the numerical results are noted.
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