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To evaluate awareness of the Eat Well Campaign (EWC) among parents and assess perceptions about its effectiveness.
Post-campaign evaluation study with a cross-section of parents recruited through random digit dialling. Participants completed an online survey about EWC awareness, its perceived effectiveness among parents and their meal planning practices (attitudes, behaviours and self-efficacy).
A federal mass-media campaign disseminated by Health Canada (2013–2014) to promote meal planning to Canadian parents.
Parents (n 964) of children aged 2–12 years from all Provinces and Territories.
Of respondents, 41 % (390/964) were aware of the campaign; Quebec City and rural Quebec had the highest rates of awareness, whereas Vancouver, Winnipeg and Toronto had the lowest. Awareness was greater among parents with lower income, basic education and French-speakers. Campaign intensity was significantly associated with greater odds of reporting positive attitudes towards the EWC and meal planning (P < 0·05). Campaign awareness was significantly associated with greater odds of believing that meal planning helps maintain a healthy diet (OR = 1·68, 95 % CI 1·03, 2·74) and planning meals (OR = 1·66, 95 % CI 1·03, 2·54), but not self-efficacy, in adjusted models.
The present study is the first to evaluate an initiative that promoted meal planning with mass media. The EWC demonstrated evidence of success in terms of equitable access to a nutrition initiative by reaching lower-income and less-educated parents. Understanding behavioural factors among different segments of the population will be important to target appropriate audiences and develop tailored interventions that support healthy eating practices.
For the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases, the WHO recommended to rename transgender transidentity as “gender incongruence”, to remove it from the chapter of mental and behavioral disorders, and to put it in a new category titled “Conditions related to sexual health”. This should contribute to reduce stigmatisation while maintaining access to medical care. One argument in favor of depsychiatrisation is to demonstrate that essential features of gender identity disorders, namely psychological distress and functional impairment, are not necessarily reported by every transgender person, and may result from social rejection and violence rather than dysphoria itself. Initially confirmed in Mexico, these hypotheses were tested in a specific French medical context, where access to care does not require any prior mental health evaluation or diagnosis.
In 2017, 72 transgender persons completed retrospective interviews which focused on the period when they became aware that they might be transgender and perhaps would need to do something about it.
Results showed that psychological distress and functional impairment were not reported by every participant, that they may result from rejection and violence, and especially from rejection and violence coming from coworkers and schoolmates. Additional data showed that the use of health services for body transformation did not depend on distress and dysfunction. Finally, participants preferred ICD 11 to employ “transgender” or “transidentity” rather than “gender incongruence”.
Results support depsychiatrisation. They are discussed in terms of medical, ethical, legal, and social, added values and implications of depsychiatrisation.
A lasting legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007–2008 was the promotion of the Permafrost Young Researchers Network (PYRN), initially an IPY outreach and education activity by the International Permafrost Association (IPA). With the momentum of IPY, PYRN developed into a thriving network that still connects young permafrost scientists, engineers, and researchers from other disciplines. This research note summarises (1) PYRN’s development since 2005 and the IPY’s role, (2) the first 2015 PYRN census and survey results, and (3) PYRN’s future plans to improve international and interdisciplinary exchange between young researchers. The review concludes that PYRN is an established network within the polar research community that has continually developed since 2005. PYRN’s successful activities were largely fostered by IPY. With >200 of the 1200 registered members active and engaged, PYRN is capitalising on the availability of social media tools and rising to meet environmental challenges while maintaining its role as a successful network honouring the legacy of IPY.
The illegal killing and taking of wild birds remains a major threat on a global scale. However, there are few quantitative data on the species affected and countries involved. We quantified the scale and scope of this issue in Northern and Central Europe and the Caucasus, using a diverse range of data sources and incorporating expert knowledge. The issue was reported to be widespread across the region and affects almost all countries/territories assessed. We estimated that 0.4–2.1 million birds per year may be killed/taken illegally in the region. The highest estimate of illegal killing in the region was for Azerbaijan (0.2-1.0 million birds per year). Out of the 20 worst locations identified, 13 were located in the Caucasus. Birds were reported to be illegally killed/taken primarily for sport and food in the Caucasus and for sport and predator/pest control in both Northern and Central Europe. All of the 28 countries assessed are parties to the Bern Convention and 19 are also European Union Member States. There are specific initiatives under both these policy instruments to tackle this threat, yet our data showed that illegal killing and taking is still occurring and is not restricted to Mediterranean European countries. Markedly increased effort is required to ensure that existing legislation is adequately implemented and complied with/enforced on the ground. Our study also highlighted the paucity of data on illegal killing and taking of birds in the region. It is a priority, identified by relevant initiatives under the Bern Convention and the European Union, to implement systematic monitoring of illegal killing and taking and to collate robust data, allowing stakeholders to set priorities, track trends and monitor the effectiveness of responses.
The consequences of minor trauma involving a head injury (MT-HI) in independent older adults are largely unknown. This study assessed the impact of a head injury on the functional outcomes six months post-injury in older adults who sustained a minor trauma.
This multicenter prospective cohort study in eight sites included patients who were aged 65 years or older, previously independent, presenting to the emergency department (ED) for a minor trauma, and discharged within 48 hours. To assess the functional decline, we used a validated test: the Older Americans’ Resources and Services Scale. The cognitive function of study patients was also evaluated. Finally, we explored the influence of a concomitant injury on the functional decline in the MT-HI group.
All 926 eligible patients were included in the analyses: 344 MT-HI patients and 582 minor trauma without head injury. After six months, the functional decline was similar in both groups: 10.8% and 11.9%, respectively (RR=0.79 [95% CI: 0.55–1.14]). The proportion of patients with mild cognitive disabilities was also similar: 21.7% and 22.8%, respectively (RR=0.91 [95% CI: 0.71–1.18]). Furthermore, for the group of patients with a MT-HI, the functional outcome was not statistically different with or without the presence of a co-injury (RR=1.35 [95% CI: 0.71–2.59]).
This study did not demonstrate that the occurrence of a MT-HI is associated with a worse functional or cognitive prognosis than other minor injuries without a head injury in an elderly population, six months after injury.
Young Onset Dementia (YOD), defined by first symptoms of cognitive or behavioral decline occurring before the age of 65 years, is relatively rare compared to dementia of later onset, but it is associated with diagnostic difficulty and heavy burden on affected individuals and their informal carers. Existing health and social care structures rarely meet the needs of YOD patients. Internet-based interventions are a novel format of delivering health-related education, counseling, and support to this vulnerable yet underserved group.
The RHAPSODY (Research to Assess Policies and Strategies for Dementia in the Young) project is a European initiative to improve care for people with YOD by providing an internet-based information and skill-building program for family carers. The e-learning program focuses on managing problem behaviors, dealing with role change, obtaining support, and looking after oneself. It will be evaluated in a pilot study in three countries using a randomized unblinded design with a wait-list control group. Participants will be informal carers of people with dementia in Alzheimer's disease or behavioral-variant Frontotemporal degeneration with an onset before the age of 65 years. The primary outcome will be caregiving self-efficacy after 6 weeks of program use. As secondary outcomes, caregivers’ stress and burden, carer health-related quality of life, caring-related knowledge, patient problem behaviors, and user satisfaction will be assessed. Program utilization will be monitored and a health-economic evaluation will also be performed.
The RHAPSODY project will add to the evidence on the potential and limitations of a conveniently accessible, user-friendly, and comprehensive internet-based intervention as an alternative for traditional forms of counseling and support in healthcare, aiming to optimize care and support for people with YOD and their informal caregivers.
Lactose malabsorption is associated with rapid production of high levels of osmotic compounds, such as organic acids and SCFA in the colon, suspected to contribute to the onset of lactose intolerance. Adult rats are lactase deficient and the present study was conducted to evaluate in vivo the metabolic consequences of acute lactose ingestion, including host–microbiota interactions. Rats received diets of 25 % sucrose (S25 control group) or 25 % lactose (L25 experimental group). SCFA and lactic acid were quantified in intestinal contents and portal blood. Expression of SCFA transporter genes was quantified in the colonic mucosa. Carbohydrate oxidation (Cox) and lipid oxidation (Lox) were computed by indirect calorimetry. Measurements were performed over a maximum of 13 h. Time, diet and time × diet variables had significant effects on SCFA concentration in the caecum (P< 0·001, P= 0·004 and P= 0·007, respectively) and the portal blood (P< 0·001, P= 0·04 and P< 0·001, respectively). Concomitantly, expression of sodium monocarboxylate significantly increased in the colonic mucosa of the L25 group (P= 0·003 at t= 6 h and P< 0·05 at t= 8 h). During 5 h after the meal, the L25 group's changes in metabolic parameters (Cox, Lox) were significantly lower than those of the S25 group (P= 0·02). However, after 5 h, L25 Cox became greater than S25 (P= 0·004). Thus, enhanced production and absorption of SCFA support the metabolic changes observed in calorimetry. These results underline the consequences of acute lactose malabsorption and measured compensations occurring in the host's metabolism, presumably through the microbiota fermentations and microbiota–host interactions.
Element abundance ratios hold important clues to understanding the evolution of stellar populations, through the varying timescales of different nucleosynthetic contributors. Newly measured and compiled [Mg/Fe] ratios in the MILES stellar library are used to confront models of star spectra. Such models have been used in recent years to provide estimates of differential changes in spectral line strengths, due to enhancements in [α/Fe]. In this paper we test one widely used set of theoretical element response functions. Using magnesium as a proxy for all alpha elements we test the reliability of these theoretical response functions against empirical observations, and thus the reliability of current methods of measuring element abundance ratios in the stellar populations.
With the goal of assembling a new generation of more realistic single stellar population (SSP) models, we have obtained magnesium abundances for nearly 80% of the stars of the widely employed MILES empirical spectral library. Additional spectroscopic observations of carefully selected stars have recently been obtained to improve the parametric coverage of this library. Here we report on: (i) the framework of Mg abundance determination carried out at mid-resolution, (ii) the newly acquired data, and (iii) the preliminary steps towards modelling stellar populations.
Epidemiological studies have repeatedly found that whole-grain (WG) cereal foods reduce the risk of several lifestyle-related diseases, though consistent clinical outcomes and mechanisms are elusive. To compare the effects of a WG-rich diet with a matched refined-grain (RG) diet on plasma biomarkers and bowel health parameters, seventeen healthy subjects (eleven females and six males) completed an exploratory cross-over study with a 2-week intervention diet based on either WG- or RG-based foods, separated by a washout of at least 5 weeks. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. Subjects undertook a 4 h postprandial challenge on day 8 of each intervention diet. After 2 weeks, the WG diet tended to decrease plasma total and LDL-cholesterol (both P = 0·09), but did not change plasma HDL-cholesterol, fasting glucose, C-reactive protein or homocysteine compared with the RG diet. Plasma betaine and alkylresorcinol concentrations were elevated after 1 week of the WG diet (P = 0·01 and P < 0·0001, respectively). Clostridium leptum populations in faeces were increased after the WG diet, along with a trend for decreased faecal water pH (P = 0·096) and increased stool frequency (P < 0·0001) compared with the RG diet. A short controlled intervention trial with a variety of commercially available WG-based products tended to improve biomarkers of CVD compared with a RG diet. Changes in faecal microbiota related to increased fibre fermentation and increased plasma betaine concentrations point to both fibre and phytochemical components of WG being important in mediating any potential health effects.
The operation of a microwave photonic link is thoroughly investigated both theoretically and experimentally. To this aim, we have developed a simulation tool based on an accurate physical model embedded in a radio frequency (RF) chain simulator. The theoretical predictions are tested on an intensity modulation-direct detection (IMDD) link we have specifically developed to this purpose. Our simulation tool takes into account both optical and electrical characteristics of the link components including the laser dynamics and impedance matching networks. It thus enables an accurate understanding of the different physical and electrical phenomena governing the link's performances even under unusual operation conditions. Specifically, we were able to isolate an unusual behavior and to confirm it experimentally. It is thereby clear that the noise figure of a microwave optical link can be lower than the electrical losses, such as a mismatched output passive electrical network. This state is reached when the optical losses are high enough and when the link's output impedance is mismatched, too.
Over the past decades, analysis of occluded carbon in phytoliths (opaline silica mineral bodies that form in and between plant cells) has become a workhorse of paleoclimate and archaeological studies. Since different plant types exhibit distinctive phytolith morphologies, their assemblages are used in identifying vegetation histories or food culture adaptations. A few direct radiocarbon AMS measurements of phytoliths have been carried out, but these measurements are difficult due to the low concentrations of phytoliths in some plant species, and the small amount of C per phytolith (<2%). In addition, no phytoliths samples of a known 14C age are available to verify measurement accuracy and precision, and to check sample preparation protocols. Background corrections are also difficult to address due to the lack of suitable material. In this work, we designed a procedure to quantify a suitable blank using SiO2 powder samples (close to the opal structure, and free of 14C). The full phytolith extraction showed high carbon contamination components: a) ∼3 μg of modern C and ∼2 μg of dead C. We also performed accuracy tests on large phytolith-occluded carbon samples extracted from soils and harvested plants. The unexpected 14C ages in some of the results triggered further investigations of possible sources of carbon contamination.
GABA and glutamate are known as the principal inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the vertebrate central nervous system, respectively. However, recent electro-physiological and immunogold data reported by Stell et al.  indicate that GABA may undergo also an excitatory action on presynaptic varicosities of parallel fibers (PFs) in the molecular layer of the rat cerebellum. PFs are axonal extensions, with a cross section of about 0.1 m, of the glutamatergic granule cells. Such an unexpected excitatory action of GABA indicates clearly the presence of GABA receptors in the PFs of granule cells. We show in this study that quantum dots may be used specifically and efficiently to label two endogenous synaptic proteins, namely R-GABAA-1 receptors (GABAA Rs) and glutamate transporters (VGLUT1) in order to target their localization in very small structures such as the presynaptic varicosities of the PFs, in agreement with the results recently reported by Stell et al..
Experimental butters with a high content of trans-18:1 fatty acids an/r cis-9,trans-11-18:2 (rumenic acid; RA) were fed to thirty-six New Zealand White rabbits to investigate their effects on adipose tissue (AT) and liver lipogenic activities. Animals received one of three atherogenic (0·2% cholesterol) diets containing 12% butter with either a standard fatty acid composition (rich in saturated fatty acids), rich in trans-10-18:1 (T10 diet) or in trans-11-18:1 plus RA (T11+ RA diet) for 6 or 12 weeks. The ingestion of butters rich in trans fatty acids an/r RA for 6 weeks had little or no effect on liver and AT lipogenesis. The ingestion for 12 weeks of butter rich in T11 + RA decreased perirenal AT weight, lipogenic enzyme and lipoprotein lipase activities, without affecting liver lipid concentration or lipogenic activities except for a decrease in glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. Similar trends, but of a lower magnitude, were observed in rabbits fed the T10 diet for 12 weeks. Ingestion of the T10 or T11 + RA diets for 6 or 12 weeks had no significant effect on plasma metabolites and hormones except for glucose which increased at 6 weeks in the T10 group. Plasma leptin concentration was positively correlated with AT weight but did not differ between the three diets. In conclusion, the supply of butters rich in either T10 or T11 + RA in an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks decreased rabbit AT lipogenesis, with a more marked effect of the T11 + RA diet, but had no effect on liver lipogenesis.
The reliability of phytolith assemblage analysis for characterizing Mediterranean vegetation is investigated in this study. Phytolith assemblages are extracted from modern and buried Holocene soils from the middle Rhône valley (France). The relation between modern phytolith assemblages and the surrounding vegetation, as well as between fossil assemblages and contemporaneous vegetation, already reconstructed through other proxies, is discussed. We demonstrate that the main northwestern Mediterranean biomes are well distinguished by soil phytolith assemblage analysis. In particular, the density of pine and nonconiferous trees (densities expressed relatively to the grass cover) and the overall degree of opening of the vegetation appear well recorded by three phytolith indexes. North Mediterranean vegetation changes during the Holocene period, mainly tree line shifts, pine wood development and deforestation are poorly documented, due to the scarcity of proxy-preserving sites. Phytolith assemblage analysis of soils, buried soils, and sediments appears to be a promising technique to fill this gap.