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To investigate whether vitamin D status predicts weight gain or increase in waist circumference during the 11-year follow-up in general adult population.
A population-based longitudinal study.
The study was conducted using data from the nationally representative Health 2000/2011 Survey. The analyses were based on regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.
Weight, waist circumference and vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration analysed with radioimmunoassay) were measured from 2924 participants aged 30–64 years at baseline.
In men, low vitamin D status at baseline predicted ≥10 % increase in waist circumference during the follow-up when adjusted for age only (OR for sufficient v. deficient S-25(OH)D 0·41; 95 % CI 0·25, 0·67; P for trend <0·01), but the association with weight gain was only borderline significant. After adjustment for potential confounders, low vitamin D status remained a significant predictor of increase in waist circumference, but the association with weight gain was further attenuated. In women, vitamin D status at baseline did not predict weight gain or increase in waist circumference.
Our results suggest that vitamin D insufficiency may be a risk factor of abdominal obesity among men but not among women. In men, it may also increase the risk of weight gain. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and examine potential mechanisms behind them. There is also a possibility that vitamin D is a biomarker of healthy lifestyle rather than an independent risk factor for obesity.
We investigated the determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] and dietary vitamin D sources among three immigrant groups in Finland and compared their S-25(OH)D to the general Finnish population.
Cross-sectional population-based Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study and the nationally representative Finnish Health 2011 Survey. S-25(OH)D was standardised according to the Vitamin D Standardisation Program. Vitamin D sources were assessed by interview.
Six different municipalities in Finland (60°–63°N).
Immigrants aged 18–64 years (446 Russians, 346 Somalis, 500 Kurds), 798 Finns aged 30–64 years.
The mean of S-25(OH)D was 64 (95 % CI 62, 66), 44 (95 % CI 41, 46), 35 (95 % CI 34, 37) and 64 (95 % CI 62, 66) nmol/l for Russians, Somalis, Kurds and Finns, respectively. S-25(OH)D among Somalis and Kurds was lower compared with Finns (P < 0·001). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (S-25(OH)D <30 nmol/l) and insufficiency (S-25(OH)D <50 nmol/l) was higher among immigrants than Finns (P < 0·001). Vitamin D-rich foods differed between the groups; vitamin D-fortified fat spread consumption was higher among Somalis (91 %) than among Russians (73 %) and Kurds (60 %); fish was less consumed among Kurds (17 %) than among Russians (43 %) and Somalis (38 %); and 57 % Russians, 56 % Kurds and 36 % Somalis consumed vitamin D-fortified dairy daily (P < 0·001 for all). Daily smoking, alcohol consumption and winter blood sampling were determinants of vitamin D insufficiency (P ≤ 0·03). Older age, physical activity, fish and vitamin D-fortified dairy consumption were associated with lower odds of insufficiency (P ≤ 0·04).
Vitamin D status differed among immigrant groups and the determinants are, to some degree, associated with learned or existing cultural behaviours.
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