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Religious accommodation analysis often takes the form of a tripartite test. One of the factors in such a test is the presence of burden, the current judicial understandings of which have been inadequate to capture a wide range of impact that government regulations have on the individual or community practice of religion. This article considers and compares the jurisprudence of the high courts of the United States and Canada and the European Court of Human Rights and argues for an expansive understanding of the burden requirement in the evaluation of religious accommodation claims, namely to consider burden as (1) coercion, (2) impact, and (3) ratification. I argue that it is imperative to acknowledge different kinds of burden before proceeding to determine its gravity. This approach takes religion more seriously than prevailing approaches and provides for a more equitable distribution of the burden of proof in religious accommodation claims.
Late prehistoric archaeological research in Myanmar is in a phase of rapid expansion. Recent work by the Mission Archéologique Française au Myanmar aims to establish a reliable Neolithic to Iron Age culture-historical sequence, which can then be compared to surrounding regions of Southeast Asia. Excavations at Nyaung'gan and Oakaie in central Myanmar have provided 52 new AMS dates, which allow the creation of Myanmar's first reliable prehistoric radiometric chronology. They have also identified the Neolithic to Bronze Age transition in central Myanmar, which is of critical importance in understanding long-range interactions at the national, regional and inter-regional level. This research provides the first significant step towards placing late prehistoric Myanmar in its global context.
Non Injected Facet (NIF) lasers were developed to increase catastrophic optical damage level of the devices. In this work we present the analysis of the laser diodes (LD) front facet temperature distribution. Micro-thermoreflectance technique is used to perform a detailed temperature maps of the operating LDs. Such a technique gives us temperature maps with a spatial resolution better than 1mm and area of the maps covers active region and substrate crystal. We demonstrate micro thermoreflectance as a perfect tool to determine real temperature distribution of the operating laser diode front facet. Examined series of LDs under investigation have been made in two different ways. Major point of this work is comparison of the front facet temperature distribution of devices with and without injected facets. We compare temperature value and temperature distribution in the waveguide region in both types of the LDs. In our experiment NIF laser diodes exhibit facet temperatures increased by a factor of 1.4.
Strontium barium niobate (Sr2.5Ba2.5Nb10O30) thin films were deposited on (001) SrTiO3 single-crystalline substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The growth nature was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Selected-area electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of six types of grains. These grains grew on the substrate in a partially epitaxial fashion. Geometrical models were built, which were confirmed by TEM observations. Based on the TEM results and geometrical analysis, a crystallographic model was developed. The strain nature resulting from the growth columns is discussed in this report.
Electron tomography is a well-established technique for
three-dimensional structure determination of (almost) amorphous specimens
in life sciences applications. With the recent advances in nanotechnology
and the semiconductor industry, there is also an increasing need for
high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) structural information in physical
sciences. In this article, we evaluate the capabilities and limitations of
transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-angle-annular-dark-field
scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) tomography for the
3D structural characterization of partially crystalline to highly
crystalline materials. Our analysis of catalysts, a hydrogen storage
material, and different semiconductor devices shows that features with a
diameter as small as 1–2 nm can be resolved in three dimensions by
electron tomography. For partially crystalline materials with small single
crystalline domains, bright-field TEM tomography provides reliable 3D
structural information. HAADF-STEM tomography is more versatile and can
also be used for high-resolution 3D imaging of highly crystalline
materials such as semiconductor devices.
To report on the haemoglobin concentrations and prevalence of anaemia in schoolchildren in eight countries in Africa and Asia.
Blood samples were collected during surveys of the health of schoolchildren as a part of programmes to develop school-based health services.
Rural schools in Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Tanzania and Vietnam.
Nearly 14 000 children enrolled in basic education in three age ranges (7–11 years, 12–14 years and Ä15 years) which reflect the new UNICEF/WHO thresholds to define anaemia.
Anaemia was found to be a severe public health problem (defined as >40% anaemic) in five African countries for children aged 7–11 years and in four of the same countries for children aged 12–14 years. Anaemia was not a public health problem in the children studied in the two Asian countries. More boys than girls were anaemic, and children who enrolled late in school were more likely to be anaemic than children who enrolled closer to the correct age. The implications of the four new thresholds defining anaemia for school-age children are examined.
Anaemia is a significant problem in schoolchildren in sub-Saharan Africa. School-based health services which provide treatments for simple conditions that cause blood loss, such as worms, followed by multiple micronutrient supplements including iron, have the potential to provide relief from a large burden of anaemia.
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