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The first episode of psychosis is a critical period in the emergence of cardiometabolic risk.
We set out to explore the influence of individual and lifestyle factors on cardiometabolic outcomes in early psychosis.
This was a prospective cohort study of 293 UK adults presenting with first-episode psychosis investigating the influence of sociodemographics, lifestyle (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, substance use) and medication on cardiometabolic outcomes over the following 12 months.
Rates of obesity and glucose dysregulation rose from 17.8% and 12%, respectively, at baseline to 23.7% and 23.7% at 1 year. Little change was seen over time in the 76.8% tobacco smoking rate or the quarter who were sedentary for over 10 h daily. We found no association between lifestyle at baseline or type of antipsychotic medication prescribed with either baseline or 1-year cardiometabolic outcomes. Median haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) rose by 3.3 mmol/mol in participants from Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups, with little change observed in their White counterparts. At 12 months, one-third of those with BME heritage exceeded the threshold for prediabetes (HbA1c >39 mmol/mol).
Unhealthy lifestyle choices are prevalent in early psychosis and cardiometabolic risk worsens over the next year, creating an important window for prevention. We found no evidence, however, that preventative strategies should be preferentially directed based on lifestyle habits. Further work is needed to determine whether clinical strategies should allow for differential patterns of emergence of cardiometabolic risk in people of different ethnicities.
Declaration of interest
F.G. has received honoraria for advisory work and lectures or CME activity support from Roche, BMS, Lundbeck, Otsuka, Janssen and Sunovion, is a collaborator on an NHS Innovations project co-funded by Janssen and has a family member with professional links to Lilly and GSK, including shares. R.M.M. has received honoraria for lectures from Lundbeck, Otsuka, Janssen and Sunovian. M.D.F. has received honoraria for lectures from Janssen and Sunovian. Z.A. has received honoraria for advisory work and lectures from Roche, Sanofi, Lilly and Otsuka. O.H. has received investigator-initiated research funding from and/or participated in advisory/speaker meetings organised by Astra-Zeneca, Autifony, Biogen, BMS, Eli Lilly, Heptares, Jansenn, Lundbeck, Lyden-Delta, Otsuka, Servier, Sunovion, Rand and Roche. D.T. has received funding for lectures and research from Janssen, Otsuka, Servier, Lundbeck, Sunovion.
The current study aimed to (i) describe racial/ethnic disparities in household food and beverage purchases among participants and non-participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and (ii) examine longitudinal associations between SNAP participation and purchases by race/ethnicity.
To describe disparities, we estimated sociodemographic-adjusted mean purchases of seven unhealthy food and beverage groups (e.g. junk food, sugar-sweetened beverages) and four nutrients (e.g. sugar, Na) among white, black and Hispanic SNAP-participating and non-participating households. To examine longitudinal associations, we used multivariable linear regression with household fixed effects.
Food and beverage purchases among low-income (≤250 % federal poverty line) US households (n 30 403) participating in the Nielsen Homescan Panel.
Among non-participants, there were significant black–white disparities (i.e. differences favouring white households) in households’ adjusted mean purchases of processed meat, sweeteners, sugar-sweetened beverages, energy and Na. These disparities persisted among SNAP participants. In contrast, the only significant Hispanic–white disparity among non-participants was for Na purchases; this disparity was reduced in magnitude and no longer significant among SNAP-participating households. Additionally, Hispanic households purchased less energy from junk foods than white households, regardless of SNAP status. In longitudinal models accounting for household fixed effects, SNAP participation was associated with increased energy purchased among black households. No other significant longitudinal associations between SNAP and purchase outcomes were observed.
SNAP may not be meeting its potential to improve food and beverage purchases or reduce disparities. Research is needed to identify strategies for ensuring nutritious purchases across all racial/ethnic groups.
BACKGROUND: IGTS is a rare phenomenon of paradoxical germ cell tumor (GCT) growth during or following treatment despite normalization of tumor markers. We sought to evaluate the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of IGTS in patients in 21 North-American and Australian institutions. METHODS: Patients with IGTS diagnosed from 2000-2017 were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 739 GCT diagnoses, IGTS was identified in 33 patients (4.5%). IGTS occurred in 9/191 (4.7%) mixed-malignant GCTs, 4/22 (18.2%) immature teratomas (ITs), 3/472 (0.6%) germinomas/germinomas with mature teratoma, and in 17 secreting non-biopsied tumours. Median age at GCT diagnosis was 10.9 years (range 1.8-19.4). Male gender (84%) and pineal location (88%) predominated. Of 27 patients with elevated markers, median serum AFP and Beta-HCG were 70 ng/mL (range 9.2-932) and 44 IU/L (range 4.2-493), respectively. IGTS occurred at a median time of 2 months (range 0.5-32) from diagnosis, during chemotherapy in 85%, radiation in 3%, and after treatment completion in 12%. Surgical resection was attempted in all, leading to gross total resection in 76%. Most patients (79%) resumed GCT chemotherapy/radiation after surgery. At a median follow-up of 5.3 years (range 0.3-12), all but 2 patients are alive (1 succumbed to progressive disease, 1 to malignant transformation of GCT). CONCLUSION: IGTS occurred in less than 5% of patients with GCT and most commonly after initiation of chemotherapy. IGTS was more common in patients with IT-only on biopsy than with mixed-malignant GCT. Surgical resection is a principal treatment modality. Survival outcomes for patients who developed IGTS are favourable.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Internet cognitive–behavioural therapy (iCBT) for panic disorder of up to 10 lessons is well established. The utility of briefer programmes is unknown.
To determine the efficacy and effectiveness of a five-lesson iCBT programme for panic disorder.
Study 1 (efficacy): Randomised controlled trial comparing active iCBT (n=27) and waiting list control participants (n=36) on measures of panic severity and comorbid symptoms. Study 2 (effectiveness): 330 primary care patients completed the iCBT programme under the supervision of primary care practitioners.
iCBT was significantly more effective than waiting list control in reducing panic (g=0.97, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.61), distress (g=0.92, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.55), disability (g=0.81, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.44) and depression (g=0.79, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.41), and gains were maintained at 3 months post-treatment (iCBT group). iCBT remained effective in primary care, but lower completion rates were found (56.1% in study 2 v. 63% in study 1). Adherence appeared to be related to therapist contact.
The five-lesson Panic Program has utility for treating panic disorder, which translates to primary care. Adherence may be enhanced with therapist contact.
Small food store interventions show promise to increase healthy food access in under-resourced areas. However, none have tested the impact of price discounts on healthy food supply and demand. We tested the impact of store-directed price discounts and communications strategies, separately and combined, on the stocking, sales and prices of healthier foods and on storeowner psychosocial factors.
Factorial design randomized controlled trial.
Twenty-four corner stores in low-income neighbourhoods of Baltimore City, MD, USA.
Stores were randomized to pricing intervention, communications intervention, combined pricing and communications intervention, or control. Stores that received the pricing intervention were given a 10–30 % price discount by wholesalers on selected healthier food items during the 6-month trial. Communications stores received visual and interactive materials to promote healthy items, including signage, taste tests and refrigerators.
All interventions showed significantly increased stock of promoted foods v. control. There was a significant treatment effect for daily unit sales of healthy snacks (β=6·4, 95 % CI 0·9, 11·9) and prices of healthy staple foods (β=–0·49, 95 % CI –0·90, –0·03) for the combined group v. control, but not for other intervention groups. There were no significant intervention effects on storeowner psychosocial factors.
All interventions led to increased stock of healthier foods. The combined intervention was effective in increasing sales of healthier snacks, even though discounts on snacks were not passed to the consumer. Experimental research in small stores is needed to understand the mechanisms by which store-directed price promotions can increase healthy food supply and demand.
Complex biological products, such as those used to treat various forms of cancer, are typically produced by mammalian cells in bioreactors. The most important class of such biological medicines is proteins. These typically bind to sugars (glycans) in a process known as glycosylation, creating glycoproteins, which are more stable and effective medicines. The glycans are large polymers that are formed by a long sequence of enzyme catalysed reactions. This sequence is not always completed, thus leading to a heterogeneous glycoprotein distribution. A better comprehension of this distribution could lead to more efficient production of high quality drugs. To understand how the manufacturing process can affect the extent of glycosylation of protein, a non-linear ODE model of glycoprotein production is developed which describes the bioreactor configuration as well as the protein production and glycosylation reactions within the cell. The entire system evolves eventually to a stable steady state. The earlier evolution is critical however, as the amount of product produced and its quality varies over time. The model is considered as two coupled systems: the bioreactor submodel and the glycosylation submodel. To investigate the early time evolution within the bioreactor submodel, analytical and numerical properties are derived using matched asymptotic expansions and a finite difference scheme for a range of initial conditions. This leads to qualitatively different regimes for aglycosylated protein production, which affect the glycosylation submodel. The discrete glycoprotein distribution is approximated as continuous and written as a first-order PDE, with good agreement between the discrete and continuous models. The PDE is found to admit shocks, but the existence of these shocks is dependent on the early time evolution within the bioreactor submodel and leads to higher levels of glycosylation at early time. This suggests that changing the bioreactor configuration can lead to higher quality product at certain times.
The ring nebulae that surround most Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stars are believed to be the relics of one or more giant eruptions (cf. Nota, these proc.). The nebulae thus represent the stellar surface layers at the time of the eruption(s) and by analysing their chemical composition and dynamics, it is possible to infer the past evolutionary state of the star.
Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) were obtained for the nebulae around the two LMC LBVs R127 and R143, and the Ofpe/WN9 star S119 for the purpose of obtaining abundances. The spectra cover the wavelength range 3235–6818 Å and aslit of dimensions 1″.7 × 0″.2 was placed on the brightest portion of each nebula. Full details of these observations are given in Smith et al. (1998).
We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and
outcome following cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety
(Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele
showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed
results, with most reporting no association between genotype and CBT
To replicate the association between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcome in child
anxiety from the Genes for Treatment study (GxT Cohort 2,
n = 829).
Logistic and linear mixed effects models were used to examine the
relationship between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcomes. Mega-analyses using both
cohorts were performed.
There was no significant effect of 5HTTLPR on CBT outcomes in Cohort 2.
Mega-analyses identified a significant association between 5HTTLPR and
remission from all anxiety disorders at follow-up (odds ratio 0.45,
P = 0.014), but not primary anxiety disorder
The association between 5HTTLPR genotype and CBT outcome did not
replicate. Short-allele homozygotes showed more positive treatment
outcomes, but with small, non-significant effects. Future studies would
benefit from utilising whole genome approaches and large, homogenous
To examine associations between food insecurity, excess body weight, psychosocial factors and food behaviours among low-income African-American families.
Cross-sectional survey of participants in the baseline evaluation of the B’More Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) obesity prevention trial. We collected data on socio-economic factors, food source destinations, acquiring food, preparation methods, psychosocial factors, beliefs and attitudes, participation in food assistance programmes, anthropometry and food security. We used principal component analysis to identify patterns of food source destinations and logistic regression to examine associations.
Fourteen low-income, predominantly African-American neighbourhoods in Baltimore City, MD, USA.
Two hundred and ninety-eight adult caregiver–child (10–14 years old) dyads.
Of households, 41·6 % had some level of food insecurity and 12·4 % experienced some level of hunger. Food-insecure participants with hunger were significantly more likely to be unemployed and to have lower incomes. We found high rates of excess body weight (overweight and obesity) among adults and children (82·8 % and 37·9 % among food insecure without hunger, 89·2 % and 45·9 % among food insecure with hunger, respectively), although there were no significant differences by food security status. Food source usage patterns, food acquisition, preparation, knowledge, self-efficacy and intentions did not differ by food security. Food security was associated with perceptions that healthy foods are affordable and convenient. Greater caregiver body satisfaction was associated with food insecurity and excess body weight.
In this setting, obesity and food insecurity are major problems. For many food-insecure families, perceptions of healthy foods may serve as additional barriers to their purchase and consumption.
Early intervention services (EIS) comprise low-stigma, youth-friendly mental health teams for young people undergoing first-episode psychosis (FEP). Engaging with the family of the young person is central to EIS policy and practice.
By analysing carers' accounts of their daily lives and affective challenges during a relative's FEP against the background of wider research into EIS, this paper explores relationships between carers' experiences and EIS.
Semi-structured longitudinal interviews with 80 carers of young people with FEP treated through English EIS.
Our data suggest that EIS successfully aid carers to support their relatives, particularly through the provision of knowledge about psychosis and medications. However, paradoxical ramifications of these user-focused engagements also emerge; they risk leaving carers' emotions unacknowledged and compounding an existing lack of help-seeking.
By focusing on EIS's engagements with carers, this paper draws attention to an urgent broader question: as a continuing emphasis on care outside the clinic space places family members at the heart of the care of those with severe mental illness, we ask: who can, and should, support carers, and in what ways?
Efficacious resource harvesting constitutes new modes of conceptualizing the interactions of buildings with surrounding environmental conditions. The internal logic of a biotechnical paradigm in architectural design allows for the potential of fluid exchanges between medium and material to be realized with correlated metabolism. Such concepts avert existing mechanical paradigms based upon linear conservation of energy processes and approach entropic integrated design interactions of nonlinear dynamical processes. Through a physiological analogy that informs architectural anatomy, the genetic code of hydrogels embeds emergent morphological responses to discrete interactions with environmental phenomena. In contrast to the static hard tissue of the skeletal system, viscoelastic soft tissue provides significant environmental impact by means of integrating spatiotemporal adaptation in building systems.
This framework provides an interscalar perspective for integrating biopolymeric membranes within building-envelope systems and informs the microstate design of the polymer chains for optimized mechanical performance. Hydrogels are a translucent three-dimensional water-swollen polymer, which exhibit mechanical work upon interaction with water vapor. In effect, this interaction provides for a variant index of refraction, a variant heat capacitance, and a physical shift in surface morphology. Characteristic changes in material thermal and mechanical properties parallel diurnal climate profiles for circadian biorhythmic membrane designs. The macrostates of temperature, pressure, and volume reciprocally inform the potential microscopic properties, including position and velocity of each molecule within the material system. The viscoelastic molecular entropy (Maxwell model) of hydrogels is established as a fundamental basis for situating a dynamic material logic influencing a high efficacy architectural physiology. The Maxwell model is translated as an algorithmic framework for mechanical control through tetra-functional polymer chain development of biopolymeric hydrogels. In contrast to polyacrylamide hydrogels, the chemistry of biopolymeric polysaccharide hydrogels is well suited for renewable sourcing and down cycling to achieve sustainable material life cycles. However, these biopolymers do not inherently exhibit robust structural properties necessary for influencing morphological shifts of the membranes for intelligent passive design strategies such as self-actuating ventilation apertures or self-shading surface geometries. The research encompassed in this work engages the development of a more acute framework for the trajectory of biopolymeric hydrogel dynamics based upon a necessity for controlled morphological modulations in response to specific environmental conditions.
Radical hypofractionated thoracic radiotherapy is the most commonly used radiotherapy schedule for inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the United Kingdom, despite a lack of level I evidence to support its use.
To supplement existing published retrospective data with a mature data series and provide further evidence to support the use of this schedule in routine clinical practice.
Materials and methods
Retrospective analysis of all inoperable NSCLC cases treated with radical hypofractionated radiotherapy with or without induction chemotherapy in the North Wales Cancer Treatment Centre between 2001 and 2011.
Of the 222 patients, 209 (94%) received 55 Gy in 20 fractions (#) and 13 (6%) received 52·5 Gy in 20#. Induction chemotherapy was administered in 121 (55%) cases. The median survival of 28·6 months (95% confidence interval 24·2–32·5) is comparable with previously published survival outcomes for this patient group.
The growing body of evidence for this schedule, confirming survival outcomes comparable with internationally accepted results, is sufficient to support its future use in inoperable NSCLC.
Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness.
To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden.
Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria.
We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset.
Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role.