Trichomonas vaginalis is an anaerobic protist, responsible for the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted infection in humans. One of the most intriguing aspects of T. vaginalis pathobiology is the complex relationship with intracellular microbial symbionts: a group of dsRNA viruses belonging to family of Totiviridae (T. vaginalis virus), and eubacteria belonging to the Mycoplasma genus, in particular Mycoplasma hominis. Both microorganisms seem to strongly influence the lifestyle of T. vaginalis, suggesting a role of the symbiosis in the high variability of clinical presentation and sequelae during trichomoniasis. In the last few years many aspects of this unique symbiotic relationship have been investigated: M. hominis resides and replicates in the protozoan cell, and T. vaginalis is able to pass the bacterial infection to both mycoplasma-free protozoan isolates and human epithelial cells; M. hominis synergistically upregulates the proinflammatory response of human monocytes to T. vaginalis. Furthermore, the influence of M. hominis over T. vaginalis metabolism and physiology has been characterized. The identification of a novel species belonging to the class of Mollicutes (Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii) exclusively associated to T. vaginalis opens new perspectives in the research of the complex series of events taking place in the multifaceted world of the vaginal microbiota, both under normal and pathological conditions.