In different pathophysiological conditions plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) plasma concentrations are elevated. As dietary patterns are considered to influence PAI-1 concentration, we aimed to determine active PAI-1 plasma concentrations and mRNA expression in adipose tissue before and after consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) and the impact of additive genetic effects herein in humans. For 6 weeks, 46 healthy, non-obese pairs of twins (aged 18–70) received a normal nutritionally balanced diet (ND) followed by an isocaloric HFD for 6 weeks. Active PAI-1 plasma levels and PAI-1 mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue were assessed after the ND and after 1 and 6 weeks of HFD. Active PAI-1 plasma concentrations and PAI-1 mRNA expression in adipose tissue were significantly increased after both 1 and 6 weeks of HFD when compared to concentrations determined after ND (p < .05), with increases of active PAI-1 being independent of gender, age, or changes of BMI and intrahepatic fat content, respectively. However, analysis of covariance suggests that serum insulin concentration significantly affected the increase of active PAI-1 plasma concentrations. Furthermore, the increase of active PAI-1 plasma concentrations after 6 weeks of HFD was highly heritable (47%). In contrast, changes in PAI-1 mRNA expression in fatty tissue in response to HFD showed no heritability and were independent of all tested covariates. In summary, our data suggest that even an isocaloric exchange of macronutrients — for example, a switch to a fat-rich diet — affects PAI-1 concentrations in humans and that this is highly heritable.