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By Mabel Rowland's public accounting, the Institute of the Woman's Theatre helped hundreds of so-called stagestruck girls realize their ambitions by providing a safety net for the pitfalls of the commercial theatre. The organization, officially established in 1926 and in operation until roughly 1930, was said to have begun years earlier, “the outgrowth of a group which was formed in 1910 and used to meet in the Fitzgerald Building.” As president, Rowland—a press agent, well-known comedic monologist, and all-around theatre factotum—was supported by society women and a cadre of famous female writers and performers, including Florence Reed, who served as Vice President, and charter members Julia Arthur, Irene Castle, Rachel Crothers, Helen Hayes, Violet Heming, Elsie Janis, Anita Loos, Mary Pickford, and Mary Shaw, plus about a dozen more. At the time of its official founding, the institute announced that it would undertake three activities. First, it sought to establish a professional Broadway theatre as exclusively a women's operation, employing female playwrights, designers, directors, managers, producers, box-office staff, and so forth: “The only men who will be connected with the enterprise … are the actors and stagehands.” Second and third, the institute would give “aid and advice to girls from out of town who think they have something to offer the theater, read scripts and give opinions thereon, and in other ways labor in behalf of the feminine side of the stage.” The institute's goal of a theatre in tandem with discovering talented women looked to create a meaningful shift in women's inclusion and power within commercial theatre.
Adolescence is a critical period for development of depression and understanding of behavioural risk factors is needed to support appropriate preventive strategies. We examined associations between adolescent diet quality and depressive symptoms, cross-sectionally and prospectively, in a large community cohort, adjusting for behavioural and psychosocial covariates.
Prospective community-based cohort study (ROOTS).
Secondary schools in Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, UK.
Study participants (n 603) who completed 4 d diet diaries at age 14 years and reported depressive symptoms (Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ)) at 14 and 17 years of age.
Diet data were processed to derive a Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and daily servings of fruit and vegetables, and fish. At age 14 years, a negative association between fruit and vegetable intake and MFQ score was seen in the unadjusted cross-sectional regression model (β=−0·40; 95 % CI −0·71,−0·10), but adjustment for behavioural covariates, including smoking and alcohol consumption, attenuated this association. Fish intake and MDS were not cross-sectionally associated with MFQ score. No prospective associations were found between MDS, fruit and vegetable intake or fish intake and later MFQ score.
Diet quality was not associated with depressive symptoms in mid-adolescence. Previously reported associations in this age range may be due to confounding. Further longitudinal studies are needed that investigate associations between adolescent diet and depression across different time frames and populations, ensuring appropriate adjustment for covariates.
We are investigating a complete sample of flat-spectrum extragalactic radio quasars drawn from the Parkes 2.7 GHz survey. The sample is being used to map the space distribution of radio quasars and to determine their luminosity function. Accurate positions are being measured for a selection of the brighter quasars in order to establish an extragalactic position reference frame in the Southern Hemisphere.
We are investigating complete samples of southern hemisphere flat spectrum extra-galactic radio sources drawn from the Parkes 2.7 GHz Survey (see Bolton et al. 1979 and references therein). These samples are being used for a variety of investigations, including a determination of the space distribution and luminosity function of radio QSOs, their radio size distribution, as well as the structures of the individual sources. Accurate positions are being determined, as well, in order to establish an extra-galactic position reference frame in the southern hemisphere.
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a significant clinical and public health concern. Understanding the distribution of CRE colonization and developing a coordinated approach are key components of control efforts. The prevalence of CRE in the District of Columbia is unknown. We sought to determine the CRE colonization prevalence within healthcare facilities (HCFs) in the District of Columbia using a collaborative, regional approach.
This study included 16 HCFs in the District of Columbia: all 8 acute-care hospitals (ACHs), 5 of 19 skilled nursing facilities, 2 (both) long-term acute-care facilities, and 1 (the sole) inpatient rehabilitation facility.
Inpatients on all units excluding psychiatry and obstetrics-gynecology.
CRE identification was performed on perianal swab samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction, culture, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). Prevalence was calculated by facility and unit type as the number of patients with a positive result divided by the total number tested. Prevalence ratios were compared using the Poisson distribution.
Of 1,022 completed tests, 53 samples tested positive for CRE, yielding a prevalence of 5.2% (95% CI, 3.9%–6.8%). Of 726 tests from ACHs, 36 (5.0%; 95% CI, 3.5%–6.9%) were positive. Of 244 tests from long-term-care facilities, 17 (7.0%; 95% CI, 4.1%–11.2%) were positive. The relative prevalence ratios by facility type were 0.9 (95% CI, 0.5–1.5) and 1.5 (95% CI, 0.9–2.6), respectively. No CRE were identified from the inpatient rehabilitation facility.
A baseline CRE prevalence was established, revealing endemicity across healthcare settings in the District of Columbia. Our study establishes a framework for interfacility collaboration to reduce CRE transmission and infection.
Physical properties of In0.5(ZrMg)0.75Mo3O12, including the coefficient of thermal expansion, phase stability, hygroscopicity, and decomposition temperature have been thoroughly studied by in situ x-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and thermal methods. These investigations show that In0.5(ZrMg)0.75Mo3O12 exists in a monoclinic phase (P21/a) at room temperature and transforms to an orthorhombic (Pbcn) phase at ∼82 °C. In the orthorhombic form this material presents intrinsic near-zero thermal expansion (−0.16 × 10−6 K−1) in the range between 100 and 500 °C. The phase is not hygroscopic, but starts to decompose into its constituent oxides at temperatures higher than 700 °C. In comparison to the end member phase ZrMgMo3O12 in the In2Mo3O12–ZrMgMo3O12 solid solution, In0.5(ZrMg)0.75Mo3O12 is less promising for near room-temperature applications due to the phase transition from monoclinic to orthorhombic slightly above room temperature. However, the orthorhombic phase of In0.5(ZrMg)0.75Mo3O12 has potential for applications that require zero thermal expansion at temperatures higher than 100 °C.
A narrow-band translator and filter system has been constructed for the Parkes Multibeam receiver. This brief note outlines the characteristics of the system and indicates the range of new projects that will be possible in studies of the Magellanic Clouds.
While there is increasing recognition among archaeologists of the extent to which non-agricultural societies have managed their terrestrial ecosystems, the traditional management of marine ecosystems has largely been ignored. In this paper, we bring together Indigenous ecological knowledge, coastal geomorphological observations, and archaeological data to document how Northwest Coast First Nations cultivated clams to maintain and increase productivity. We focus on “clam gardens,” walled intertidal terraces constructed to increase bivalve habitat and productivity. Our survey and excavations of clam gardens in four locations in British Columbia provide insights into the ecological and social context, morphology, construction, and first reported ages of these features. These data demonstrate the extent of traditional maricultural systems among coastal First Nations and, coupled with previously collected information on terrestrial management, challenge us to broaden our definition of “forager” as applied to Northwest Coast peoples. This study also highlights the value of combining diverse kinds of knowledge, including archaeological data, to understand the social and ecological contexts of traditional management systems.
In up to a quarter of patients, schizophrenia is resistant to standard treatments. We undertook a naturalistic study of 153 patients treated in the tertiary referral in-patient unit of the National Psychosis Service based at the Maudsley Hospital in London. A retrospective analysis of symptoms on admission and discharge was undertaken using the OPCRIT tool, along with preliminary economic modelling of potential costs related to changes in accommodation.
In-patient treatment demonstrated statistically significant improvements in all symptom categories in patients already identified as having schizophrenia refractory to standard secondary care. The preliminary cost analysis showed net savings to referring authorities due to changes from pre- to post-discharge accommodation.
Despite the enormous clinical, personal and societal burden of refractory psychotic illnesses, there is insufficient information on the outcomes of specialised tertiary-level care. Our pilot data support its utility in all domains measured.