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To determine whether amphetamine extended-release oralsuspension (AMPH EROS) has an onset of effect at 30minutes postdose inchildren with ADHD.
This randomized, double-blind, 2-treatment, 2-sequence, placebo-controlled crossover pilot study enrolled subjects aged 6 to 12 years withattention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-Rating Scale-5 scores of ≥90th percentile for sex and age. A dose of 5 to 20mg/day of AMPH EROS was determined during a 1-week open-label phase based on medication history, symptom control, and tolerability. Subjects completed a practice laboratory classroom then received one day of double-blind active drug or placebo each in random sequence during 2 double-blind laboratory classroom days. Subjects completed the first double-blind laboratory classroom session, returned to open label drug for 5days then crossed over on day 6 during a second double-blind laboratory classroom session. DB dose was fixed at AMPH EROS 15, 17.5, or 20mg . The primary endpoint was change from predose in the Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, Pelham rating scale-combined score (SKAMP-C) at 30minutes postdose on two DB days. The key secondary endpoint was change from predose in the SKAMP-C score at 3hours postdose for AMPH EROS compared with placebo. Safety assessments included vital signs and adverse events.
Eighteen subjects were enrolled in the study (14 males and 4 females) with a mean age of 9 years. At both 30minutes and 3hours postdose, changes from baseline in SKAMP-C for AMPH EROS vs. placebo were statistically significant (p<0.01 and p=0.0002, respectively) with corresponding effect sizes of 0.96 and 1.57. Adverse events (>10%) during the open-label phase included upper respiratory tract infection, fatigue, upper abdominal pain, headache, decreased appetite, and affect lability.
AMPH EROS was effective in reducing ADHD symptoms at 30minutes postdose. AEs were mild or moderate and consistent with those of other extended-release amphetamines.
Funding Acknowledgements: Support was provided by Tris Pharma, Inc.
The northern New England region includes the states of Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine and encompasses a large degree of climate and edaphic variation across a relatively small spatial area, making it ideal for studying climate change impacts on agricultural weed communities. We sampled weed seedbanks and measured soil physical and chemical characteristics on 77 organic farms across the region and analyzed the relationships between weed community parameters and select geographic, climatic, and edaphic variables using multivariate procedures. Temperature-related variables (latitude, longitude, mean maximum and minimum temperature) were the strongest and most consistent correlates with weed seedbank composition. Edaphic variables were, for the most part, relatively weaker and inconsistent correlates with weed seedbanks. Our analyses also indicate that a number of agriculturally important weed species are associated with specific U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones, implying that future changes in climate factors that result in geographic shifts in these zones will likely be accompanied by changes in the composition of weed communities and therefore new management challenges for farmers.
This paper presents the first major data release and survey description for the ANU WiFeS SuperNovA Programme. ANU WiFeS SuperNovA Programme is an ongoing supernova spectroscopy campaign utilising the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3-m telescope. The first and primary data release of this programme (AWSNAP-DR1) releases 357 spectra of 175 unique objects collected over 82 equivalent full nights of observing from 2012 July to 2015 August. These spectra have been made publicly available via the WISEREP supernova spectroscopy repository.
We analyse the ANU WiFeS SuperNovA Programme sample of Type Ia supernova spectra, including measurements of narrow sodium absorption features afforded by the high spectral resolution of the Wide Field Spectrograph instrument. In some cases, we were able to use the integral-field nature of the Wide Field Spectrograph instrument to measure the rotation velocity of the SN host galaxy near the SN location in order to obtain precision sodium absorption velocities. We also present an extensive time series of SN 2012dn, including a near-nebular spectrum which both confirms its ‘super-Chandrasekhar’ status and enables measurement of the sub-solar host metallicity at the SN site.
The impact of oligofructose (OF) intake on stool frequency has not been clearly substantiated, while significant gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms have been reported in some individuals. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of OF on stool frequency and GI symptoms in healthy adults. In an 8-week, randomised, double-blind, parallel-arm study, ninety-eight participants were provided with 16 g OF in yogurt and snack bars (twenty male and thirty female) or matching control foods (seventeen male and thirty-one female), to incorporate, by replacement, into their usual diets. Participants completed a daily online questionnaire recording stool frequency and rating four symptoms: bloating, flatulence, abdominal cramping and noise, each on a Likert scale from ‘0’ for none (no symptoms) to ‘6’ for very severe, with a maximum symptom intensity score of 24 (sum of severities from all four symptoms). Online 24 h dietary recalls were completed during pre-baseline and weeks 4, 6 and 8 to determine fibre intake. When provided with OF foods, fibre intake increased to 24·3 (sem 0·5) g/d from pre-baseline (12·1 (sem 0·5) g/d; P < 0·001). Stool frequency increased with OF from 1·3 (sem 0·2) to 1·8 (sem 0·2) stools per d in males and 1·0 (sem 0·1) to 1·4 (sem 0·1) stools per d in females during intervention weeks compared with pre-baseline (P < 0·05),but did not change for control participants (males: 1·6 (sem 0·2) to 1·8 (sem 0·2); females: 1·3 (sem 0·1) to 1·4 (sem 0·1)). Flatulence was the most commonly reported symptom. Mean GI symptom intensity score was higher for the OF group (3·2 (sem 0·3)) v. control (1·7 (sem 0·1)) (P < 0·01), with few participants reporting above moderate symptoms. No change in symptom intensity occurred over time. Consuming yogurt and snack bars with 16 g OF improves regularity in young healthy adults. However, GI symptoms, resulting from an increase in oligofructose intake, may not diminish with time.
To determine whether antimicrobial (AM) courses ordered with an antimicrobial computer decision support system (CDSS) were more likely to be appropriate than courses ordered without the CDSS.
Retrospective cohort study. Blinded expert reviewers judged whether AM courses were appropriate, considering drug selection, route, dose, and duration.
A 279-bed university-affiliated Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital.
A 500-patient random sample of inpatients who received a therapeutic AM course between October 2007 and September 2008.
An optional CDSS, available at the point of order entry in the VA computerized patient record system.
CDSS courses were significantly more likely to be appropriate (111/254, 44%) compared with non-CDSS courses (81/246, 33%, P = .013). Courses were more likely to be appropriate when the initial provider diagnosis of the condition being treated was correct (168/273, 62%) than when it was incorrect, uncertain, or a sign or symptom rather than a disease (24/227, 11%, P< .001). In multivariable analysis, CDSS-ordered courses were more likely to be appropriate than non-CDSS-ordered courses (odds ratio [OR], 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–2.98). Courses were also more likely to be judged appropriate when the initial provider diagnosis of the condition being treated was correct than when it was incorrect, uncertain, or a sign or symptom rather than a disease (OR, 3.56; 95% CI, 1.4-9.0).
Use of the CDSS was associated with more appropriate AM use. To achieve greater improvements, strategies are needed to improve provider diagnoses of syndromes that are infectious or possibly infectious.