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Colonial self-government was a brief but significant phase in Australia’s history. This chapter explores how, why, and when various classes of settlers came to seek self-government and traces the shifts in British government approaches to colonial governance. When Britain eventually granted self-government to most Australian colonies in the 1850s and Western Australia in 1890, the six Australian colonies implemented it very differently. With some colonies more democratic and progressive than others, self-government had varying consequences for the class and gender relations within the settler communities that were rapidly expanding and consolidating in the second half of the nineteenth century.
We also focus on the implications of colonial self-government for Aboriginal people, who throughout its operation experienced continuing dispossession, loss of self-determination, and population decline. We consider the long history of Aboriginal assertions of rights against a political system that systematically failed to recognise their sovereignty, give them a parliamentary voice, or acknowledge the fact and consequences of their violent dispossession.
In view of the increasing complexity of both cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and patients in the current era, practice guidelines, by necessity, have become increasingly specific. This document is an expert consensus statement that has been developed to update and further delineate indications and management of CIEDs in pediatric patients, defined as ≤21 years of age, and is intended to focus primarily on the indications for CIEDs in the setting of specific disease categories. The document also highlights variations between previously published adult and pediatric CIED recommendations and provides rationale for underlying important differences. The document addresses some of the deterrents to CIED access in low- and middle-income countries and strategies to circumvent them. The document sections were divided up and drafted by the writing committee members according to their expertise. The recommendations represent the consensus opinion of the entire writing committee, graded by class of recommendation and level of evidence. Several questions addressed in this document either do not lend themselves to clinical trials or are rare disease entities, and in these instances recommendations are based on consensus expert opinion. Furthermore, specific recommendations, even when supported by substantial data, do not replace the need for clinical judgment and patient-specific decision-making. The recommendations were opened for public comment to Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) members and underwent external review by the scientific and clinical document committee of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the science advisory and coordinating committee of the American Heart Association (AHA), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). The document received endorsement by all the collaborators and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Indian Heart Rhythm Society (IHRS), and the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS). This document is expected to provide support for clinicians and patients to allow for appropriate CIED use, appropriate CIED management, and appropriate CIED follow-up in pediatric patients.
The aim of this study is to determine the species of parasite that infected the population of Brussels during the Medieval and Renaissance periods, and determine if there was notable variation between different households within the city. We compared multiple sediment layers from cesspits beneath three different latrines dating from the 14th–17th centuries. Helminths and protozoa were detected using microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We identified Ascaris sp., Capillaria sp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Entamoeba histolytica, Fasciola hepatica, Giardia duodenalis, Taenia sp. and Trichuris sp. in Medieval samples, and continuing presence of Ascaris sp., D. dendriticum, F. hepatica, G. duodenalis and Trichuris sp. into the Renaissance. While some variation existed between households, there was a broadly consistent pattern with the domination of species spread by fecal contamination of food and drink (whipworm, roundworm and protozoa that cause dysentery). These data allow us to explore diet and hygiene, together with routes for the spread of fecal–oral parasites. Key factors explaining our findings are manuring practices with human excrement in market gardens, and flooding of the polluted River Senne during the 14th–17th centuries.
Psychiatric disorders, including eating disorders (EDs), have clinical outcomes that range widely in severity and chronicity. The ability to predict such outcomes is extremely limited. Machine-learning (ML) approaches that model complexity may optimize the prediction of multifaceted psychiatric behaviors. However, the investigations of many psychiatric concerns have not capitalized on ML to improve prognosis. This study conducted the first comparison of an ML approach (elastic net regularized logistic regression) to traditional regression to longitudinally predict ED outcomes.
Females with heterogeneous ED diagnoses completed demographic and psychiatric assessments at baseline (n = 415) and Year 1 (n = 320) and 2 (n = 277) follow-ups. Elastic net and traditional logistic regression models comprising the same baseline variables were compared in ability to longitudinally predict ED diagnosis, binge eating, compensatory behavior, and underweight BMI at Years 1 and 2.
Elastic net models had higher accuracy for all outcomes at Years 1 and 2 [average Area Under the Receiving Operating Characteristics Curve (AUC) = 0.78] compared to logistic regression (average AUC = 0.67). Model performance did not deteriorate when the most important predictor was removed or an alternative ML algorithm (random forests) was applied. Baseline ED (e.g. diagnosis), psychiatric (e.g. hospitalization), and demographic (e.g. ethnicity) characteristics emerged as important predictors in exploratory predictor importance analyses.
ML algorithms can enhance the prediction of ED symptoms for 2 years and may identify important risk markers. The superior accuracy of ML for predicting complex outcomes suggests that these approaches may ultimately aid in advancing precision medicine for serious psychiatric disorders.
The north-west European population of Bewick’s Swan Cygnus columbianus bewickii declined by 38% between 1995 and 2010 and is listed as ‘Endangered’ on the European Red List of birds. Here, we combined information on food resources within the landscape with long-term data on swan numbers, habitat use, behaviour and two complementary measures of body condition, to examine whether changes in food type and availability have influenced the Bewick’s Swan’s use of their main wintering site in the UK, the Ouse Washes and surrounding fens. Maximum number of Bewick’s Swans rose from 620 in winter 1958/59 to a high of 7,491 in winter 2004/05, before falling to 1,073 birds in winter 2013/14. Between winters 1958/59 and 2014/15 the Ouse Washes supported between 0.5 and 37.9 % of the total population wintering in north-west Europe (mean ± 95 % CI = 18.1 ± 2.4 %). Swans fed on agricultural crops, shifting from post-harvest remains of root crops (e.g. sugar beet and potatoes) in November and December to winter-sown cereals (e.g. wheat) in January and February. Inter-annual variation in the area cultivated for these crops did not result in changes in the peak numbers of swans occurring on the Ouse Washes. Behavioural and body condition data indicated that food supplies on the Ouse Washes and surrounding fens remain adequate to allow the birds to gain and maintain good body condition throughout winter with no increase in foraging effort. Our findings suggest that the recent decline in numbers of Bewick’s Swans at this internationally important site was not linked to inadequate food resources.
Settlers in Queensland understood themselves to be in a state of open warfare with Aboriginal people. Free from metropolitan pressure and without a strong local church or humanitarian presence, they proceeded to seize the land as quickly as possible. While this was nothing new in the Australian colonies, the paucity of countervailing and complicating forces made dispossession in Queensland exceptionally brutal. Those British officials and commentators who feared that granting self-government to the Australian colonies could prove catastrophic for Aboriginal people would see their worst fears realised in Queensland, though not quite in the way the Colonial Office officials imagined. Where they had envisaged that the colonies might pass legislation authorising the killing of Aboriginal people, and in the colonial constitutions had retained the right of veto to prevent this happening, the frontier policies adopted in Queensland would not rely on legislation. Rather, dispossession depended on the Native Mounted Police. Stories of NMP atrocities led to the appointment of a Select Committee of inquiry (1861), the only proper parliamentary report on race relations with Indigenous people produced in Queensland during the colonial period. The result was the strengthening of the NMP.
Having received draft constitutions from four Australian colonies, Britain entered the final phase of granting responsible government, and with it, transferring control of Aboriginal policy. During this time, British governments had become preoccupied with major upheavals in New Zealand, British North America, southern Africa and Jamaica, as well as the Crimean War. This chapter traces the steps by which British governments withdrew from Aboriginal policy in Australia, contrasting this with their far messier withdrawal of responsibility in New Zealand and Canada. Once self-government was granted to most of the colonies in the mid 1850s, British government and public attention to Australian Aboriginal people dramatically declined, and most British politicians now considered it more important to maintain British military strength closer to home. Self-government provided a rationale for insisting that the colonies pay their own defence costs including those arising from conflicts with Indigenous people. Yet despite British disengagement from Australian Aboriginal people and their welfare, there were two arenas in which British interest in Australian Aboriginal people continued – in the emerging field of racial science, and to some degree in the monarchy and its representatives. This chapter explores this curious mix of British political disengagement, scientific interest, and royal connection
Western Australia experienced low rates of immigration and population growth from the 1850s to the 1880s, when the situation changed dramatically with the discovery of gold and the expansion of pastoralism. With its tiny settler population and reception of convicts until 1868, the colony did not gain representative government until 1870. Only in the mid 1880s did a strong campaign for self-government emerge. For the previous thirty years, British officials reduced funding and support for protection and ‘civilisation’ policies, and focussed on punishment and imprisonment to manage both frontier conflict and labour relations. Still, Western Australia did not experience the killing fields on the Queensland scale; in its place was public display of the justice system – police, courts, and prisons. Aboriginal policy varied somewhat between governors, but the realities of settlement over vast distances meant that governments of all political hues instituted systems of summary (in)justice conducted by magistrates who were themselves settlers and employers, leading to a harsh system of policing, trial, and punishment that lacked any semblance of judicial independence. British governors presided over the extensive and often brutal use of Aboriginal labour in the pearling and pastoral industries, making only sporadic and largely ineffective attempts at regulation.
In 1885 and shortly afterwards, Western Australia witnessed a remarkable coincidence in timing. Just as colonists at last asserted a united, multi-partisan movement for settler self-government on the basis of the colony’s economic and social advancement, accusations that settlers in the north were imposing a form of slavery on Aboriginal people became a matter of public controversy. The charge of slavery was not only disturbing in itself, but was a clear allusion to a backward social and economic system that stood against everything colonists wanted to proclaim about themselves – civilised, progressive, and responsible. As this chapter outlines, the conjunction of these two developments had a significant impact on the negotiations for self-government. One result was the insertion, on British insistence, into the colony’s constitution in 1889 of a clause, Section 70, that mandated that even with self-government Aboriginal policy remain under British control through the governor, and that the colony direct one per cent of colonial revenue to Aboriginal welfare. The clause would last only seven years, however, and was ineffective in preventing the continuing dispossession and exploitation of Indigenous people under the new system of responsible government. Western Australia would continue to witness extensive frontier violence for several decades.
Unlike its southern neighbour, Tasmania, Victoria still had a substantial Aboriginal population who had remained on or close to their traditional lands and whose existence was recognised by government and settlers. This population negotiated in various ways with the new colonial governments, especially on the question of reserving traditional lands for community maintenance and survival. With its healthy economy and large middle class population, Victoria became the colony where the policies of protection and latterly amalgamation inherited from Britain would survive the transition to self government to the greatest extent. Under colonial conditions, however, these policies focussed increasingly on management and control, as colonial bureaucracies devised new systems of micro-management and intervention into daily life. As officials and Indigenous people struggled over the nature and management of reserves, officials learnt the value of ethnography for a science of government. For their part, Indigenous people, who demonstrated in a loyal address to the Queen in 1863 a grasp of the value of symbolic occasions and in their dealings with officials over the placement and management of reserves a range of practical negotiating skills, created a tradition of Indigenous activism that continues today.
Imperial authorities made new attempts to govern Aboriginal people in more systematic, humane ways – establishing protectorates, supporting missions, providing rationing, and prosecuting white men for frontier violence. Such measures often asserted the authority of the imperial centre. But settlers rejected these attempts to limit their access to Aboriginal land or hold them responsible for Aboriginal welfare or survival. Colonists in New South Wales and its new settlement of Port Phillip voiced their opposition to Aboriginal protection in terms of the citizenship of free white men; protection policies were portrayed as a product of distant, dictatorial government, proof of the need for colonists to govern themselves locally. Protection policies were less controversial in South Australia and Western Australia, but there they were accompanied by punitive interventions: police and military expeditions against Aboriginal people, controversies over whether Aboriginal people were British subjects, and the establishment of the infamous Rottnest Island prison. The same imperial authorities that called for Aboriginal protection were also deeply complicit in settler-colonialism and land theft. However, this era was also distinguished by early Aboriginal political activism. Faced with dispossession, Aboriginal people launched new attempts to engage with colonial authority figures, asserting their rights to land, liberty and survival.