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Reproductive issues as related to CHD must be discussed in the clinic and at home. Providers can ensure that correct information is imparted to the adolescent and encourage mothers to provide support and guidance to the adolescent. The level to which these conversations occur is unknown.
A survey distributed to female adolescent/mother dyads assessed self-reported conversations with the healthcare provider and between each other about reproductive health topics. A clinician survey was completed to assess CHD diagnosis, risk of hormonal contraception, and pregnancy risk.
Among 91 dyads, 33.0% of adolescents and 42.9% of mothers reported discussing recurrence risk of CHD with the provider. In regard to the cardiac lesion affecting a baby, 30.7% of adolescents and 28.7% of mothers reported discussing this with a provider. Significantly less adolescents and mothers reported discussing the risks of hormonal contraception and pregnancy with a provider. In assessing conversations between adolescents and mothers, only 44.2% of adolescents and 52.3% of mothers reported discussing with each other the safety of using birth control and 46.5% of adolescents and 64.0% of mothers reported discussing the safety of pregnancy.
Adolescents with CHD and their mothers report low rates of reproductive health-related conversations with the healthcare provider, and mothers report low rates of having these conversations with their daughters. These topics should be discussed at each appointment with the cardiologist and must be encouraged to continue at home.
Healthcare personnel (HCP) were recruited to provide serum samples, which were tested for antibodies against Ebola or Lassa virus to evaluate for asymptomatic seroconversion.
From 2014 to 2016, 4 patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) and 1 patient with Lassa fever (LF) were treated in the Serious Communicable Diseases Unit (SCDU) at Emory University Hospital. Strict infection control and clinical biosafety practices were implemented to prevent nosocomial transmission of EVD or LF to HCP.
All personnel who entered the SCDU who were required to measure their temperatures and complete a symptom questionnaire twice daily were eligible.
No employee developed symptomatic EVD or LF. EVD and LF antibody studies were performed on sera samples from 42 HCP. The 6 participants who had received investigational vaccination with a chimpanzee adenovirus type 3 vectored Ebola glycoprotein vaccine had high antibody titers to Ebola glycoprotein, but none had a response to Ebola nucleoprotein or VP40, or a response to LF antigens.
Patients infected with filoviruses and arenaviruses can be managed successfully without causing occupation-related symptomatic or asymptomatic infections. Meticulous attention to infection control and clinical biosafety practices by highly motivated, trained staff is critical to the safe care of patients with an infection from a special pathogen.
Meat is a nutrient-dense food that plays a central role in the diets of many children globally, contributing significantly to intakes of energy, protein and a number of essential micronutrients. However, nutritive quality is variable across meat types and cuts, and dietary guidelines across Europe typically encourage the consumption of lean meats whilst limiting the consumption of processed meats. The current work aimed to estimate intakes of unprocessed beef and lamb and their contribution to nutrient intakes in Irish children and teenagers.
Unprocessed beef was consumed by 79% of children and 83% of teenagers, while unprocessed lamb was consumed by 19% of children and 20% of teenagers. Mean daily intakes of unprocessed beef were 21 g and 34 g in children and teenagers (consumers only), while mean daily intakes of unprocessed lamb were 14 g and 23 g. Unprocessed beef and lamb contributed 5–6% to mean daily energy intakes and contributed the following proportions to daily nutrient intakes in children and teenagers, respectively: protein (11%, 15%), total fat (7%, 9%), saturated fat (7%, 10%), monounsaturated fat (9%, 11%), iron (7%, 10%), zinc (18%, 23%), vitamin A (7%, 7%), vitamin D (12%, 16%), total niacin (9%, 13%), vitamin B6 (6%, 9%), vitamin B12 (15%, 22%), sodium (6%, 7%).
Unprocessed beef and lamb are valuable sources of nutrients for Irish children and teenagers. Relative to their energy contribution, they contribute higher proportions of a number of important nutrients, such as protein, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin B12 and total niacin, while contributing relatively small proportions of total fat, saturated fat and sodium. This research was funded by Meat Technology Ireland.
The present analysis aimed to investigate the changes in the reported portion sizes (PS) of foods and beverages commonly consumed by Irish adults (18–64 years) from the North South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (NSIFCS) (1997–2001) and the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) (2008–10). Food PS, which are defined as the weight of food (g) consumed per eating occasion, were calculated for comparable foods and beverages in two nationally representative cross-sectional Irish food consumption surveys and were published in NSIFCS and NANS. Repeated measure mixed model analysis compared reported food PS at the total population level as well as subdivided by sex, age, BMI and social class. A total of thirteen commonly consumed foods were examined. The analysis demonstrated that PS significantly increased for five foods (‘white sliced bread’, ‘brown/wholemeal breads’, ‘all meat, cooked’, ‘poultry, roasted’ and ‘milk’), significantly decreased for three (‘potatoes’, ‘chips/wedges’ and ‘ham, sliced’) and did not significantly change for five foods (‘processed potato products’, ‘bacon/ham’, ‘cheese’, ‘yogurt’ and ‘butter/spreads’) between the NSIFCS and the NANS. The present study demonstrates that there was considerable variation in the trends in reported food PS over this period.
The international trade in wildlife is currently one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. One group, the turtles, has experienced far-reaching population declines and extinctions because the majority of animals are sourced from the wild. The island of New Guinea has the highest diversity of freshwater turtles (Chelidae) in the Australasian region and large numbers are harvested from the Indonesian province of Papua to supply the international pet trade. A total of 264 of these turtles representing six species were recorded between December 2010 and March 2011 while gathering information about wildlife trade in the Indonesian province of Papua. Most were juveniles, although a substantial number of large adults were also harvested. None of the species recorded are CITES-listed. Despite one species not being allocated an annual harvest quota, it was observed being traded. Illegal and unregulated trade coupled with a lack of basic ecological data for these species can have a severe impact on wild populations. We present recommendations for law enforcement and conservation of these species.
In this investigation we examined the developmental correlates and predictors of maternal emotional availability in interactions with their 7-year-old children among a sample of families at psychosocial risk. We found developmental coherence in maternal interactive behavior, and in the relations between maternal emotional availability and children's functioning in middle childhood. Mothers and children were observed at home and in a laboratory playroom in infancy to assess maternal interactive behavior and child attachment security. When children were 7 years of age, dyads were observed in the lab; maternal emotional availability was coded using the Emotional Availability Scales, and children's disorganized and controlling attachment behavior was assessed. Classroom teachers reported on children's behavior problems; at age 8, children reported on their depressive symptoms. Results showed that aspects of maternal emotional availability (sensitivity, nonhostility, nonintrusiveness [passive/withdrawn behavior]) were associated with children's functioning in middle childhood: (a) controlling and disorganized attachment behavior, (b) behavior problems in school, and (c) self-reported depressive symptoms. Maternal emotional availability in childhood was predicted by early mother–infant relationship dysfunction (maternal hostility, disrupted communication, and infant attachment insecurity).
This prospective 20-year study assessed associations between maternal depressive symptoms in infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and child and adolescent depressive symptoms in a sample of families at high psychosocial risk. Maternal symptomatology was assessed with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) when children were infants (12 months), school-aged (age 8), and adolescents (age 19). Children's depressive symptoms were measured at age 8 (Dimensions of Depression Profile for Children and Adolescents) and age 19 (CES-D). Maternal depressive symptoms during infancy contributed to the prediction of child depressive symptoms at age 8, after controlling for concurrent maternal depressive symptoms, clinical risk in infancy, and gender. Clinical risk in infancy marginally contributed to the prediction model. Disorganization of attachment in infancy and maternal hostility were independent predictors of depressive symptoms at age 8 and did not mediate the relation between maternal and child depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms in adolescence were predicted by gender, children's depressive symptoms at age 8, maternal depressive symptoms in adolescence, and maternal depressive symptoms in infancy. There was no moderating effect of gender. Adding to previous evidence on the importance of early maternal depression, maternal depressive symptoms during infancy were related to the development of depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence even when other variables of potential relevance were controlled.
The saltmarshes of the Georgia, USA, Atlantic coast are expansive and highly productive. The marshes form the intertidal ecosystem 5–10 km wide extending from the barrier-island chain to the mainland. The predominant macrophyte of the marshes is smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel.). Cross-marsh average annual production of smooth cordgrass shoots in Georgia has been measured at approximately 1.3 kg m− 2 of marsh (Newell, 2001a, from Dai & Wiegert, 1996). Like most grasses, smooth cordgrass does not abscise its leaf blades; they remain attached to the leaf sheath after senescence and death (Newell, 1993, and references therein). As new blades are produced at the apex of shoots, the bottom blades senesce and die, until the whole shoot dies after flowering. Therefore, a large crop of standing-dead litter is available to microbes for decomposition for much of the year (for leaf blades alone, up to 538 g dry mass m− 2) (Newell et al., 1998).
Because smooth cordgrass is produced in an intertidal marsh, one might suspect that tidal flooding would be a major wetting phenomenon for the standing-dead cordgrass leaves. However, the grass shoots extend above the flooding-tidal level most of the time: it is estimated that most of the dead-blade mass is wetted by tides only about 10% of the time on an annual-average basis (Newell et al., 1998).
Abnormalities of cognitive style in bipolar disorder are of both clinical and theoretical importance.
To compare cognitive style in people with affective disorders and in healthy controls.
Self-rated questionnaires were administered to 118 individuals with bipolar I disorder, 265 with unipolar major recurrent depression and 268 healthy controls. Those with affective disorder were also interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and case notes were reviewed.
Those with bipolar disorder and those with unipolar depression demonstrated different patterns of cognitive style from controls; negative self-esteem best discriminated between those with affective disorders and controls; measures of cognitive style were substantially affected by current levels of depressive symptomatology; patterns of cognitive style were similar in bipolar and unipolar disorder when current mental state was taken into account.
Those with affective disorder significantly differed from controls on measures of cognitive style but there were no differences between unipolar and bipolar disorders when current mental state was taken into account.
The 2001/02 austral summer was the warmest summer on record in Taylor Valley, Antarctica, (∼78° S) since continuous records of temperature began in 1985. The highest stream-flows ever recorded in the Onyx River, Wright Valley, were also recorded that year (the record goes back to the 1969/70 austral summer). In early January 2002, a groundwater seep was observed flowing in the southwest portion of Taylor Valley. This flow has been named ‘Wormherder Creek’ (WHC) and represents an unusual event, probably occurring on a decadal time-scale. The physical characteristics of this feature suggest that it may have flowed at other times in the past. Other groundwater seeps, emanating from the north-facing slope of Taylor Valley, were also observed. Little work has been done previously on these very ephemeral seeps, and the source of water is unknown. These features, resembling recently described features on Mars, represent the melting of subsurface ice. The Martian features have been interpreted as groundwater seeps. In this paper we compare the chemistry of the WHC groundwater seep to that of the surrounding streams that flow every austral summer. The total dissolved solids content of WHC was ∼6 times greater than that of some nearby streams. The Na : Cl and SO4 : Cl ratios of the seep waters are higher than those of the streams, but the Mg : Cl and HCO3 : Cl ratios are lower, indicating different sources of solutes to the seeps compared to the streams. The enrichment of Na and SO4 relative to Cl may suggest significant dissolution of mirabilite within the previously unwetted soil. The proposed occurrence of abundant mirabilite in higher-elevation soils of the dry valley region agrees with geochemical models developed, but not tested, in the late 1970s. The geochemical data demonstrate that these seeps could be important in ‘rinsing’ the soils by dissolving and redistributing the long-term accumulation of salts, and perhaps improving habitat suitability for soil biota. The H4SiO4 concentration is 2–3 times greater in WHC than in the surrounding streams, indicating a large silicate-weathering component in the seep waters.
The first half of the sixteenth century witnessed the tentative beginnings of direct political relations between Ireland and France in the form of a French dimension to the intrigues of the Anglo-Irish Geraldine dynasty. During this period, leading members of the Geraldine family of Desmond and Kildare mounted campaigns in opposition to the English crown and in the process sought the assistance of François I (1494–1547). James Fitzgerald, tenth earl of Desmond (d. 1529), was the first Irish magnate to engage in serious intrigue with the French crown in the early 1520s. In 1540 his kinsman, Gerald Fitzgerald, heir to the earldom of Kildare then in abeyance following his half-brother's rebellion (1534–5), sought temporary asylum in France. His status as a leading Anglo-Irish magnate and as a figurehead of Ireland's first nation-wide coalition gained him an hospitable reception at the hands of the French authorities and ensured his safe passage through France into Flanders while exerting a modest strain on Anglo-French relations. In the longer term, it gave rise to his being invested with a pivotal role in French war propaganda during the 1540s. This deliberately contrived scaremongering was effective in playing upon one of the greatest fears of the Whitehall and Dublin administrations in relation to Ireland – a revival of the Geraldine interest, backed by the French and possibly the Scots. Through their intrigues the Fitzgeralds therefore furnished the French with legitimising causes for possible intervention in Ireland during the two Anglo-French wars in the 1520s and in the mid-1540s.