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We report a longitudinal comprehension study of (long) passive constructions in two native-Spanish child groups differing by age of initial exposure to L2 English (young group: 3;0–4;0; older group: 6;0–7;0), where amount of input, L2 exposure environment, and socioeconomic status are controlled. Data from a forced-choice task show that both groups comprehend active sentences, not passives, initially (after 3·6 years of exposure). One year later, both groups improve, but only the older group reaches ceiling on both actives and passives. Two years from initial testing, the younger group catches up. Input alone cannot explain why the younger group takes five years to accomplish what the older group does in four. We claim that some properties take longer to acquire at certain ages because language development is partially constrained by general cognitive and linguistic development (e.g. de Villiers, 2007; Long & Rothman, 2014; Paradis, 2008, 2010, 2011; Tsimpli, 2014).
A traditional assumption is that schistosome cercariae lose their tails at the onset of penetration. It has, however, recently been demonstrated that, for Schistosoma mansoni, cercarial tails were not invariably being shed as penetration took place and a high proportion of tails entered human skin under experimental conditions. This phenomenon was termed delayed tail loss (DTL). In this paper, we report that DTL also happens with S. japonicum cercariae during penetration of mouse skin. It occurred at all cercarial densities tested, from as few as 10 cercariae/2·25 cm2 of mouse skin up to 200 cercariae. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that there was a density-dependent increase in DTL as cercarial densities increased. No such density-dependent enhancement was shown for percentage attachment over the same cercarial density range.
Non-supermarket food retailers can be a promising channel for increasing the availability of healthy foods in underserved communities. The present paper reports on retailer practices, attitudes and beliefs about the supply of healthy foods before and after the introduction of new subsidies for healthy foods by the US Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in October 2009.
We designed and conducted in-person standardized interviews with store owners and managers to assess perceptions of demand and profits for different foods, supply networks, barriers to stocking healthy foods and their changes following implementation of the new WIC packages.
Non-supermarket retailers in five towns of Connecticut, USA (n 68 in 2009 and n 58 in 2010).
Owners and managers of WIC-authorized and non-WIC convenience stores and non-chain grocery stores.
Retailers identified customer demand as the primary factor in stocking decisions. They reported observing a significantly weaker demand for healthy foods compared with unhealthy foods, although it improved for certain foods with the new WIC subsidies. Less healthy foods were also perceived as more profitable. Supplier networks varied by product from convenient manufacturer delivery for salty snacks to self-supply for produce. WIC retailers were able to quickly adapt and supply healthy foods required under the new WIC programme guidelines.
Retailers other than supermarkets currently perceive little demand for healthy foods, but new WIC subsidies have the power to change these perceptions. Supply barriers seem secondary in the limited offerings of healthy foods by stores and could be overcome when policy changes generate new demand for healthy foods.
Success in the domain of work is a salient developmental task of adulthood and a key indicator of adaptive function in the evaluation of health and psychopathology. Yet few studies have examined pathways to work competence, especially with strategies testing for cumulative cascade effects over time. Cascade models spanning 20 years were tested via structural equation modeling, linking work competence in early adulthood to antecedent competence in work and other domains of competence in childhood and emerging adulthood. Data were drawn from the Project Competence longitudinal study of 205 school children followed for 20 years. Relative fit of alternative models was evaluated by the Bayesian information criterion. As hypothesized, the effectiveness of adaptive behavior in earlier age-salient developmental task domains forecasted later work competence, which also showed strong concurrent links to competence in other domains. Results suggest there are numerous pathways by which success or failure in major developmental task domains in childhood and adolescence may influence adaptation in other domains and eventually work competence, both concurrently and cumulatively over time. Cascade effects highlight the potential significance for later work competence of childhood conduct (antisocial vs. rule-abiding behavior) and social competence with peers, in addition to the ongoing role that academic attainment may have for work success. Work competence also showed considerable stability over a 10-year period during early adulthood. Implications and applications for future research and intervention are discussed.
In a nutshell, this chapter is about two linguists setting out to learn from teachers and elementary school students about how linguistics education might fit into a particular elementary school. We sometimes describe our experiences as having taken a journey. Looking back, we can say that our journey had a beginning, during which we made various kinds of preparations, checking them again and again. It had a middle, during which we met and interacted with individuals and institutions with unfamiliar ways of operating, and almost incomprehensible ways of explaining and understanding things. During this time, we experienced positive but also uncomfortable thoughts and feelings. Finally, our journey came to an end of sorts: a time when we had the luxury of a period of reflection. It was then that we came to appreciate that we had done nothing less than traverse “cultures” (largely unknowingly) between the university and the kindergarten to 12th-grade (henceforth, K-12) schools. We tell our yet unfinished story here, focusing on its beginnings, in hopes of encouraging other linguists to embark on similar journeys.
Preliminaries and preparations
The state of New York requires that public school teachers be certified. The requirements for permanent certification include both a baccalaureate degree and a master's degree. Hence the connection between the university and the schools: every teacher has to have a master's degree.
Siricids and their parasitoids were reared from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae)) trees infested by Sirex noctilio F. in central New York State. Sirex noctilio accounted for 94.3% of the siricid specimens emerging, totaling 1313 specimens from six trees, with a maximum of 495 from one tree. Of the individuals emerging per tree, 20.6 ± 5.2% were female. Two native siricids, Sirex nigricornis F. and S. edwardsii Brullè, also emerged from trees but in low numbers. Three hymenopteran parasitoid species that attack siricids emerged, totaling 21.8 ± 6.4% parasitism per tree. Ibalia leucospoides ensiger Norton (Ibaliidae) was by far the most abundant parasitoid, at 20.5 ± 6.3% parasitism per tree. The percentage of female S. noctilio emerging was positively correlated with wood diameter, whereas percent parasitism by I. l. ensiger was negatively correlated with wood diameter.
Longitudinal growth trajectories of reading and math achievement were studied in four primary school grade cohorts (GCs) of a large urban district to examine academic risk and resilience in homeless and highly mobile (H/HM) students. Initial achievement was assessed when student cohorts were in the second, third, fourth, and fifth grades, and again 12 and 18 months later. Achievement trajectories of H/HM students were compared to low-income but nonmobile students and all other tested students in the district, controlling for four well-established covariates of achievement: sex, ethnicity, attendance, and English language skills. Both disadvantaged groups showed markedly lower initial achievement than their more advantaged peers, and H/HM students manifested the greatest risk, consistent with an expected risk gradient. Moreover, in some GCs, both disadvantaged groups showed slower growth than their relatively advantaged peers. Closer examination of H/HM student trajectories in relation to national test norms revealed striking variability, including cases of academic resilience as well as problems. H/HM students may represent a major component of “achievement gaps” in urban districts, but these students also constitute a heterogeneous group of children likely to have markedly diverse educational needs. Efforts to close gaps or enhance achievement in H/HM children require more differentiated knowledge of vulnerability and protective processes that may shape individual development and achievement.
A variety of nurse practitioner education and training programmes are currently offered. They are designed to prepare experienced nurses to undertake an expanded role and a broader range of activities. Since the introduction of this new nursing role many nurse practitioners are now working in primary care health care teams. This study aimed to investigate how the working patterns of primary care teams have been altered as a result of the introduction of the nurse practitioner into the primary care team, the ways in which nurse practitioners' skills are integrated into the primary care team and other team members' perceptions of this new nursing role. The study was exploratory and a qualitative methodology was chosen. Phase one consisted of three focus groups with three primary care teams including nurse practitioners. Phase two involved audiotaped, semi-structured interviews with nurse practitioners (n = 4) and general practitioners who worked with nurse practitioners (n = 3). The data were subsequently transcribed, reduced and analysed using a theoretical framework appropriate to the research design. Nurse practitioners operated in a variety of ways in primary care. Key clinical activities included triage, physical examination, diagnosis and decisions about the treatment and care of individuals and specific groups of patients. The conditions dealt with by nurse practitioners were generally less complex than those seen by GPs but an element of overlap occurred. The nurse practitioners emphasized the importance of offering patients a choice about whom they prefer to be seen by. Most team members were supportive of the new team member, although some were confused about the role and others were opposed to the introduction of a new specialist nurse post. The findings indicate a need for role clarity, definition and official recognition.
Spectra of Mercury were obtained at the Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea, HI using SpeX. There is no indication of any absorption feature associated with FeO in Mercury’s regolith. There is a 5μ m excess in thermal flux similar to that observed from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) using HIFOGS. Spectra from varying locations do exhibit different slopes and flux indicating different surface temperatures at different locations.
Patterns of continuity and change in competence and resilience over
the transition to adulthood were examined in relation to adversity and
psychosocial resources, with a focus on adaptive resources that may be
particularly important for this transition. Variable-focused and
person-focused analyses drew on data from the Project Competence
longitudinal study of a school cohort followed over 20 years from
childhood through emerging adulthood (EA) into the young adulthood (YA)
years with excellent retention (90%). Success in age-salient and
emerging developmental tasks from EA to YA was examined in a sample of
173 of the original participants with complete data on adversity,
competence, and key resources. Regressions and extreme-group analyses
indicated striking continuity in competence and resilience, yet also
predictable change. Success in developmental tasks in EA and YA was
related to core resources originating in childhood (IQ, parenting
quality, socioeconomic status) and also to a set of EA adaptive
resources that included planfulness/future motivation, autonomy,
adult support, and coping skills. EA adaptive resources had unique
predictive significance for successful transitions to adulthood, both
overall and for the small group of individuals whose pattern of
adaptation changed dramatically from maladaptive to resilient over the
transition. Results are discussed in relation to the possibility that
the transition to adulthood is a window of opportunity for changing the
life course.This article is based on
data collected as part of the Project Competence longitudinal study,
which was initiated under the leadership of Norman Garmezy, and was
supported through grants to Ann Masten, Auke Tellegen, and Norman
Garmezy from the William T. Grant Foundation, the National Science
Foundation (SBR-9729111), the National Institute of Mental Health
(MH33222), and the University of Minnesota. Preliminary results of this
study were presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for
Research on Adolescence in Baltimore (March 2004). The authors
gratefully acknowledge the contributions to this study by the
participants, who shared their lives over time to benefit others, and
by the many research team members, students, and faculty, who added
ideas and data to this endeavor over the years. The authors
particularly want to acknowledge the role of Doug Coatsworth in
designing the emerging adulthood assessments pertinent to this article
and the current members of the Project Competence research team who
improved this article through their thoughtful critiques and comments
as the analyses and writing progressed.
Mucosal surfaces continue where the skin leaves off, completing the boundaries between the environment and internal tissues. It is to the mucosal barrier that pathogens first attach, and the ensuing molecular interactions determine whether the pathogens will cause infection or if health will be maintained.
The different cell populations in the mucosal barrier are equipped to sense and respond to the molecular contents in the lumen and to translate this molecular information into signals that can reach local or distant tissue sites. Inflammatory cascades are often the first to be activated by bacteria or viruses, and explain many aspects of acute disease. It is not the presence of microbes in the tissues that makes us sick. Vast numbers of bacteria may colonize different sites in the body, and viruses may persist for long periods of time, while the host remains perfectly healthy. It is the host response to the infecting agents that causes the symptoms and tissue damage. Inflammatory mediators thus provide a direct link between the microbe and the host in disease pathogenesis (for a review, see Svanborg et al., 1999).
It is commonly accepted that the most virulent bacteria cause the most severe acute symptoms and long-term effects, but the mechanisms used to trigger acute disease manifestations are less clear. Pathogens elicit the strongest host response, even though members of the indigenous microflora contain many of the same molecules. This is quite puzzling, but at least two factors may explain the difference.
In Ireland the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinoidea) typically inhabits intertidal bored holes. At Lough Hyne, Co. Cork, a population occurs associated with rock scree in the shallow subtidal zone. This study provides unequivocal quantitative evidence to demonstrate diurnal migration in a population of P. lividus at Lough Hyne, Ireland. Most size groups/age-classes did not to migrate, the youngest always and oldest never occurring under rocks. Those that did migrate between the lower and upper surface of rocks (2+, 3+ and 4+ age categories) did so in exactly the reverse circadian pattern to those described from the Mediterranean Sea.
To assess the effect on the rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) of decreasing the frequency of ventilator circuit changes from three times to once per week.
Prospective, randomized trial.
Medical intensive care unit (MICU), a 12-bed, critical-care internal medicine unit, and neurosciences intensive care unit (NICU), a 21-bed, predominantly adult neurosurgical unit, of an urban university hospital.
All 447 patients requiring mechanical ventilation during October 1992 through June 1993.
Patients were allocated randomly on the basis of permanent medical record numbers: those with odd numbers had circuits changed three times per week, those with even numbers once per week. Intensive-care-unit surveillance was conducted in accordance with definitions and methods of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System.
In the MICU, the one-change-per-week group had a VAP rate of 7.3 per 1,000 ventilator days, versus 5.9 for the three-per-week group (P=.6). In the NICU, the one-change-per-week group had a rate of 12.2 per 1,000 ventilator days, versus 12.6 for the three-per-week group (P=.9). Considering patients in both units ventilated for no more than 7 days, the one-change-per-week group had a VAP rate of 5.9 per 1,000 ventilator days, versus 9.0 per 1,000 for the three-changes-per-week group (odds ratio [OR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 0.25 to 1.69). Including patients in the two units maintained on mechanical ventilation for more than 7 days, the one-change-perweek group had a VAP rate of 13.2 per 1,000 ventilator days, versus 9.6 per 1,000 for the three-changes-per-week group (OR, 1.37; CI95 0.71 to 2.65).
Decreasing the frequency of ventilator circuit changes from three times to once per week had no adverse effect on the overall rate of VAP. Less frequent ventilator circuit changes may decrease the incidence of VAP among patients ventilated for no more than 1 week. However, the incidence of VAP may be higher among patients with once weekly circuit changes ventilated for more than 1 week.
The purpose of this study was to determine the complication rates associated with the use of the endotracheal tube (ET) a the use of the esophageal obturator airway/esophageal gastric tube airway (EOA/EGT during the treatment of patients with prehospital cardiac arrest.
A descriptive, quasi-experimental study of 509 consecutive adults, cardiac arrest patients was conducted. Patients were examined prospectively for airway intervention type and complications. Some patients were examined at their final destinations (field, morgue, funeral home), while other patients were examined by EMS providers in the field when airway adjuncts were switched. Also, airways were evaluated for complications by emergency physicians at destination emergency departments.
The airway in use at the time of examination was the esophageal obturator airway (EOA) or esophageal gas lube airway (EGTA) in 208 patients (40.1%); the ET (endotracheal tube) in 232 patients (45.6%); and an oral or nasopha ryngeal airway in 47 patients (9.2%). Twenty-two patients (4.3%) had both an EOA/EGTA and an ET tube in place at the time of the examination. The survival rates were similar between the EOA/EGTA and the ET groups (28% and 32%, respectively). The complication rates overall also were similar, but the serious or potentially lethal complication rate was 3.3 times more common with the use of the EOA/EGTA than with the ET tube (8.7% versus 2.6%, respectively).
The complication rate for the EOA/EGTA is unacceptably high, and careful thought must be given to its continued use. Serious questions also arise concerning the complication rates associated with the use of the ET: is the complication rate of 2.5% acceptable or should other airway alternative be considered for use in prehospital care?
In a recent study of 190 university-level advanced ESL students from 8 first-language backgrounds, significant differences were found between several groups in their proficiency in processing spatial/chronological and hierarchical information in written discourse. This paper summarizes the study, presents the results and suggests possible variables which may contribute to first-language differences in acquiring English.
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