Hydrocephalus in children has many aetiologies, and can cause multiple ophthalmic and visual disorders. This study sets out to detect and quantify visual and visuoperceptual dysfunction in children who have received surgical treatment for hydrocephalus with and without myelomeningocele, and to relate the results to the associated diagnoses and results from a comparison group. Seventy-five school-aged children (41 males, 34 females) with surgically-treated hydrocephalus and 140 comparison children (76 males, 64 females) matched for age and sex underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic examination. Median age at examination was 9 years and 4 months (range 7y 4mo–12y 10mo). Visual function deficits were identified in 83% (62/75) of the children with hydrocephalus. Visual impairment (binocular visual acuity <0.3) was found in 15% (11/73; comparison group 0%) but in none with myelomeningocele. Strabismus was found in 69% (51/74; comparison group 4% [5/140], p<0.001), and refractive errors were found in 67% (47/70; comparison group 20% [28/140], p<0.001). Cognitive visual dysfunction was identified in 59% (38/64; comparison group 3% [4/140], p<0.001). These disorders were identified in various combinations and comprised impaired ability to plan movement through depth (e.g. going down a stair), impaired simultaneous perception, impaired perception of movement, impaired orientation, and (least frequently) impaired recognition. In this study, children with hydrocephalus associated with myelomeningocele were least commonly affected. Visual disorders were most frequent in those with epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and/or cognitive disability.