This paper reviews the nature of normal and starburst galaxies in deep X-ray surveys, focusing on the observational issues. Normal and starburst galaxies may be divided from AGN via X-ray/optical flux ratios, optical spectroscopic identification, hardness ratio, and X-ray luminosity. Each of these is discussed, including the possible impact on derived X-ray-Star Formation Rate (X-ray/SFR) correlations. The measured differences in the normal galaxy X-ray Luminosity Functions (XLFs) by SED type at $z\approx0.3$–1.0 are also described.
The redshift frontiers of deep X-ray surveys are discussed, including those for individually detected accreting binary systems (Ultraluminous X-ray Sources at $z\approx0.1$–0.3) and that for the highest-redshift X-ray detection of star formation (stacking analyses of Lyman Break Galaxies to $z\approx4$). The paper closes with a discussion of normal galaxy studies with future X-ray missions such as Constellation-X, XEUS, and Generation-X.