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There are few longitudinal studies about South Asians (SAs) and little information about recruitment and retention approaches for this ethnic group.
We followed 906 SAs enrolled in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) cohort for 5 years. Surviving participants were invited for a second clinical exam from 2015 to 2018. A new wave of participants was recruited during 2017–2018. We assessed the yields from different methods of recruitment and retention.
A total of 759 (83%) completed the second clinical exam, and 258 new participants were enrolled. Providing a nearby community hospital location for the study exam, offering cab/shared ride reimbursement, and conducting home visits were the most effective methods for enhancing retention. New participant recruitment targeted women and individuals with lower socioeconomic status, and we found that participant referrals and active community engagement were most effective. Mailing invitational letters to those identified by electronic health records had very low yield.
Recruitment and retention strategies that address transportation barriers and increase community engagement will help increase the representation of SAs in health research.
Using multilevel models, we examined mother-, father-, and child-reported (N = 1,336 families) externalizing behavior problem trajectories from age 7 to 14 in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). The intercept and slope of children's externalizing behavior trajectories varied both across individuals within culture and across cultures, and the variance was larger at the individual level than at the culture level. Mothers’ and children's endorsement of aggression as well as mothers’ authoritarian attitudes predicted higher age 8 intercepts of child externalizing behaviors. Furthermore, prediction from individual-level endorsement of aggression and authoritarian attitudes to more child externalizing behaviors was augmented by prediction from cultural-level endorsement of aggression and authoritarian attitudes, respectively. Cultures in which father-reported endorsement of aggression was higher and both mother- and father-reported authoritarian attitudes were higher also reported more child externalizing behavior problems at age 8. Among fathers, greater attributions regarding uncontrollable success in caregiving situations were associated with steeper declines in externalizing over time. Understanding cultural-level as well as individual-level correlates of children's externalizing behavior offers potential insights into prevention and intervention efforts that can be more effectively targeted at individual children and parents as well as targeted at changing cultural norms that increase the risk of children's and adolescents’ externalizing behavior.
To examine the association between food choice and distress in a large national sample of American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) with type 2 diabetes.
Participants completed a sociodemographic survey, an FFQ and the Kessler-6 Distress Scale. Foods were identified as ‘healthy’ or ‘unhealthy’ using a classification grounded in the health education provided by the programme case managers; healthy and unhealthy food scores were calculated using reported intake frequencies. Pearson’s correlation coefficients for distress and food scores were calculated for all participants and by gender. Multiple linear regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between distress and food scores, controlling for sociodemographics and duration of type 2 diabetes.
Rural AI reservations and AN villages.
AI/AN (n 2484) with type 2 diabetes.
Both males (34·9 %) and females (65·1 %) had higher healthy food scores than unhealthy scores. In bivariate analysis, distress level had a significant negative correlation with healthy food scores among female participants, but the association was not significant among males. Significant positive correlations between distress and unhealthy food scores were found in both genders. In the final multivariate models, healthy food scores were not significantly related to distress; however, unhealthy food scores showed significant positive relationships with distress for both genders (females: β=0·078, P=0·0007; males: β=0·139, P<0·0001).
Health professionals working with AI/AN diagnosed with type 2 diabetes should offer food choice strategies during difficult times and recognize that males may be more likely than females to select unhealthy foods when distressed.
We present possible conceptual designs of a laser system for driving table-top free-electron lasers based on terahertz acceleration. After discussing the achievable performances of laser amplifiers with Yb:YAG at cryogenic and room temperature and Yb:YLF at cryogenic temperature, we present amplification modules with available results and concepts of amplifier chains based on these laser media. Their performances are discussed in light of the specifications for the tasks within the table-top light source. Technical and engineering challenges, such as cooling, control, synchronization and diagnostics, are outlined. Three concepts for the laser layout feeding the accelerator are eventually derived and presented.
Existing studies have not investigated the effectiveness of one long-acting injectable antipsychotic (LAI) versus another in preventing hospitalizations among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). This study was conducted to compare all-cause inpatient healthcare utilization and associated costs among BD patients who initiated LAIs.
This retrospective cohort analysis used the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan® Commercial and Medicaid claims database. Bipolar patients >18 years with at least one claim for one of the following LAIs were identified between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2014 (identification period): aripiprazole, haloperidol, paliperidone, and risperidone. The first day of initiating an LAI was considered the index date. Logistic regression and generalized linear regression models were conducted to estimate risk of inpatient hospitalization and associated costs during the 1-year follow up.
A total of 1,540 BD patients initiated an LAI: 14.5 percent aripiprazole, 16.3 percent risperidone, 21.0 percent haloperidol, and 48.1 percent paliperidone. With the aripiprazole cohort as the reference group, the odds of having any inpatient hospitalizations were significantly higher in haloperidol [Odds Ratio, OR (95 percent Confidence Interval, CI): 1.49 (1.01 - 2.19)] and risperidone [1.78 (1.19 - 2.66)] cohorts. The paliperidone cohort also had a higher risk of having a hospitalization than aripiprazole, but the difference was not statistically significant (p>.05). Among LAI initiators having any inpatient hospitalizations, the adjusted mean all-cause inpatient costs were lowest in the aripiprazole cohort (USD26,002), followed by risperidone (USD27,937), haloperidol (USD30,411), and paliperidone (USD33,240). However, the cost difference was not statistically significant.
Our study findings highlight the value of aripiprazole in reducing all-cause inpatient hospitalizations and associated costs among patients with BD during the 1-year follow-up. It is worthwhile to note that bipolar diagnoses were identified from healthcare claims coded for reimbursement purposes, thus misclassification was possible. Future studies are warranted to understand the impact of LAI use in a longer period of time.
Existing evidence on clinical and economic effectiveness of one long-acting injectable antipsychotic (LAI) versus another in successful management of schizophrenia is scarce. The study was conducted to compare all-cause inpatient healthcare utilization and associated costs among Medicaid patients with schizophrenia who initiated LAIs.
This retrospective cohort analysis used the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan® Medicaid claims database. Schizophrenia patients >18 years with at least one claim for one of the following LAI were identified between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2014 (identification period): aripiprazole, fluphenazine, haloperidol, paliperidone palmitate, and risperidone. The first day of initiating an LAI was considered the index date. Patients were followed for 1 year from index date. Logistic and general linear regression models were used to estimate risk of inpatient hospitalization and associated costs during follow up.
Of the identified Medicaid patients with schizophrenia, 1,672 (36.7 percent) initiated an LAI: 44.0 percent received paliperidone, 26.4 percent haloperidol, 13.8 percent risperidone, 9.2 percent aripiprazole, and 6.6 percent fluphenazine. With the aripiprazole cohort as the reference group, the odds of having any inpatient hospitalizations were significantly higher in haloperidol [Odds Ratio, OR (95 percent Confidence Interval, CI): 1.51 (1.05 - 2.16)] and risperidone [OR (95 percent CI): 1.58 (1.07 - 2.33)] cohorts. Fluphenazine and paliperidone palmitate cohorts also had higher risk of having any inpatient hospitalizations compared with aripiprazole, but the differences were not statistically significant (p>.05). Among LAI initiators with any inpatient hospitalizations, the adjusted mean inpatient costs were lowest in the aripiprazole cohort (USD25,616), followed by haloperidol (USD30,811), paliperidone (USD30,833), risperidone (USD31,584), and fluphenazine (USD37,338), although differences were not statistically significant.
Our study findings highlight the value of aripiprazole in reducing inpatient hospitalizations and associated costs among patients with schizophrenia. However, our study is limited as our results are reflective of a multi-state Medicaid population. Future studies are warranted to confirm the results in non-Medicaid patient populations.
Existing findings on effectiveness of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) versus oral antipsychotics in preventing hospitalizations are inconclusive. This study was conducted to compare hospitalization costs between Medicaid patients diagnosed with schizophrenia who initiated a LAI and those who changed from one oral antipsychotic to another.
This retrospective cohort analysis used the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan® Medicaid claims database to study patients ≥18 years with schizophrenia. The two cohorts were: “LAI”, defined as initiating LAI (no prior LAI therapy) between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2014; and “oral”, defined as changing from one oral antipsychotic to another during the same period. The first day of LAI or the new oral antipsychotic was the index date. A linear regression model was conducted to estimate hospitalization costs.
The final sample included 2,861 (36.7 percent) LAI and 4,926 (63.3 percent) oral users. Compared to oral users, LAI patients were younger (mean (Standard Deviation, SD): 39.9 (13.2) versus 42.7 (13.1); p<.001) and had a lower mean Charlson Comorbidity Index score (mean (SD): 1.1 (1.9) versus 1.7 (2.3); p<.001). Of the 877 LAI initiators and 1,688 oral users who were hospitalized during the 1-year post-index follow-up period, the unadjusted mean hospitalization costs for LAI and oral users were USD32,626 and USD36,048, respectively. After adjusting for patient demographic and clinical characteristics, baseline medication use, and baseline ED or hospitalizations, the adjusted average hospitalization costs were USD1,170 lower in LAI initiators than oral users. None of the unadjusted or adjusted differences were statistically significant.
This real-world study suggests that among hospitalized patients, hospitalization costs are lower in LAI initiators than in oral antipsychotic users, although the difference is not statistically significant. Our study is limited as our results are reflective of a multi-state Medicaid population. Future studies are warranted to confirm the results in non-Medicaid patient populations.
Genetic variants and medication adherence have been identified to be the main factors contributing to lithium treatment response in bipolar disorders.
To simultaneously examine effects of variant glutamate decarboxylase-like protein 1 (GADL1) and medication adherence on response to lithium maintenance treatment in Han Chinese patients with bipolar I (BPI) disorder.
Frequencies of manic and depressive episodes between carriers and non-carriers of the effective GADL1 rs17026688 T allele during the cumulative periods of off-lithium, poor adherence to lithium treatment and good adherence to lithium treatment were compared in Han Chinese patients with BPI disorder (n = 215).
GADL1 rs17026688 T carriers had significantly lower frequencies of recurrent affective episodes than non-T carriers during the cumulative period of good adherence, but not during those of poor adherence.
GADL1 rs17026688 and medication adherence jointly predict response to lithium maintenance treatment in Han Chinese BPI patients.
Using data from 1,177 families in eight countries (Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States), we tested a conceptual model of direct effects of childhood family adversity on subsequent externalizing behaviors as well as indirect effects through psychological mediators. When children were 9 years old, mothers and fathers reported on financial difficulties and their use of corporal punishment, and children reported perceptions of their parents’ rejection. When children were 10 years old, they completed a computerized battery of tasks assessing reward sensitivity and impulse control and responded to questions about hypothetical social provocations to assess their hostile attributions and proclivity for aggressive responding. When children were 12 years old, they reported on their externalizing behavior. Multigroup structural equation models revealed that across all eight countries, childhood family adversity had direct effects on externalizing behaviors 3 years later, and childhood family adversity had indirect effects on externalizing behavior through psychological mediators. The findings suggest ways in which family-level adversity poses risk for children's subsequent development of problems at psychological and behavioral levels, situated within diverse cultural contexts.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To share lessons learned from implementing a health survey to a global sample of mTWs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: mTWs were paid $0.50 for taking a 15 minute survey to ascertain attitudes and intentions toward participating in genetic research. Two phases included: pilot survey targeting 7 global regions and a large-scale implementation in English in United States, India, and other countries and in Spanish in Spanish speaking countries. Administrative and descriptive information were collected and analyzed by region/country including: completions by location, demographics, time to complete, and survey satisfaction. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: There are 4 key lessons: (1) MTurk is fast. The US sample (n=505) accrual took <2 days and the Indian sample (n=505) took 11 days, while the response from other countries (n=118) generally exceeded 30 days. (2) Using Amazon country specification was the best way to ensure responses from specific countries and regions. (3) Demographic differences exist in mTWs between countries. For example, US mTWs were significantly more likely female (60.1%) compared with India (30.2%) and other countries (34.2%). (4) mTWs found the survey understandable/acceptable. mTWs reported high understandability and acceptability of the survey, which did not vary significantly across countries or by language. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: mTurk provides an efficient platform for survey research from diverse US and Indian samples. In other countries and in Spanish, the mTurk mechanism yielded a smaller sample more slowly but was still effective.
This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,418 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Multilevel models were estimated to examine predictors of (a) within-family differences across the three time points, (b) between-family within-culture differences, and (c) between-cultural group differences in mothers' and fathers' reports of corporal punishment and children's reports of their parents' neglect. These analyses addressed to what extent mothers' and fathers' use of corporal punishment and children's perceptions of their parents' neglect were predicted by parents' belief in the necessity of using corporal punishment, parents' perception of the normativeness of corporal punishment in their community, parents' progressive parenting attitudes, parents' endorsement of aggression, parents' education, children's externalizing problems, and children's internalizing problems at each of the three levels. Individual-level predictors (especially child externalizing behaviors) as well as cultural-level predictors (especially normativeness of corporal punishment in the community) predicted corporal punishment and neglect. Findings are framed in an international context that considers how abuse and neglect are defined by the global community and how countries have attempted to prevent abuse and neglect.
This study examined whether parents’ social information processing was related to their subsequent reports of their harsh discipline. Interviews were conducted with mothers (n = 1,277) and fathers (n = 1,030) of children in 1,297 families in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States), initially when children were 7 to 9 years old and again 1 year later. Structural equation models showed that parents’ positive evaluations of aggressive responses to hypothetical childrearing vignettes at Time 1 predicted parents’ self-reported harsh physical and nonphysical discipline at Time 2. This link was consistent across mothers and fathers, and across the nine countries, providing support for the universality of the link between positive evaluations of harsh discipline and parents’ aggressive behavior toward children. The results suggest that international efforts to eliminate violence toward children could target parents’ beliefs about the acceptability and advisability of using harsh physical and nonphysical forms of discipline.
Whole-grain intake has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of several lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, CVD and some types of cancers. As measurement errors in self-reported whole-grain intake assessments can be substantial, dietary biomarkers are relevant to be used as complementary tools for dietary intake assessment. Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids found almost exclusively in whole-grain wheat and rye products among the commonly consumed foods and are considered as valid biomarkers of the intake of these products. In the present study, we analysed the plasma concentrations of five AR homologues in 2845 participants from ten European countries from a nested case–control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. High concentrations of plasma total AR were found in participants from Scandinavia and Central Europe and lower concentrations in those from the Mediterranean countries. The geometric mean plasma total AR concentrations were between 35 and 41 nmol/l in samples drawn from fasting participants in the Central European and Scandinavian countries and below 23 nmol/l in those of participants from the Mediterranean countries. The whole-grain source (wheat or rye) could be determined using the ratio of two of the homologues. The main source was wheat in Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK, whereas rye was also consumed in considerable amounts in Germany, Denmark and Sweden. The present study demonstrates a considerable variation in the plasma concentrations of total AR and concentrations of AR homologues across ten European countries, reflecting both quantitative and qualitative differences in the intake of whole-grain wheat and rye.