Seed quality is of great importance in optimizing the cost of crop establishment. Rapid and non-destructive seed quality detection methods must therefore be developed for agriculture and the seed production industry. This review focuses primarily on non-destructive techniques, namely machine vision, spectroscopy, hyperspectral imaging, soft X-ray imaging, thermal imaging and electronic nose techniques, for assessing the quality of agricultural seeds. The fundamentals of these techniques are introduced. Seed quality, including chemical composition, variety identification and classification, insect damage and disease assessment as well as seed viability and germinability of various seeds are discussed. We conclude that non-destructive techniques are accurate detection methods with great potential for seed quality assessment.