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Current practice for the treatment of traumatic hemorrhage includes fluid resuscitation and the administration of blood products. The administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) within 8 hours of injury has been shown to significantly reduce mortality in a large, prospective, randomized controlled trial. As a result, TXA is widely used in trauma centres to manage trauma patients with major bleeding. The primary aim of this study was to assess the compliance of TXA administration at a level-one trauma centre in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
We conducted a retrospective medical record review of consecutive adult trauma patients received at the Hamilton General Hospital between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2014. Compliance with TXA administration was based on the inclusion criteria of the CRASH–2 trial.
Five hundred and thirty-four of 2,475 trauma patients met the inclusion criteria for TXA administration. Twenty-one patients who received TXA at peripheral hospital prior to their arrival at the level-one trauma centre were excluded from the analysis, and 18 patients were excluded due to missing data. One hundred and thirty-four patients received TXA, representing a compliance rate of 27%. Mean time from arrival to TXA administration was 47 minutes. Compliance increased for those who required massive transfusion and as the number of criteria for TXA administration increased.
Compliance with TXA administration to trauma patients with suspected major bleeding was low. Quality improvement strategies aimed at increasing appropriate use of TXA are warranted.
Evidence-based guidelines regarding the optimal mode of transport for trauma patients from scene to trauma centre are lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between trauma patient outcomes and mode of transport at a single Ontario Level I Trauma Centre, and specifically to investigate if the mode of transport confers a mortality benefit.
A historical, observational cohort study was undertaken to compare rotor-wing and ground transported patients. Captured data included demographics, injury severity, temporal and mortality variables. TRISS-L analysis was performed to examine mortality outcomes.
387 rotor-wing transport and 2,759 ground transport patients were analyzed over an 18-year period. Rotor-wing patients were younger, had a higher Injury Severity Score, and had longer prehospital transport times. Mechanism of injury was similarly distributed between groups. After controlling for heterogeneity with TRISS-L analysis, the mortality of rotor-wing patients was found to be lower than predicted mortality, whereas the converse was found with ground patients.
Rotor-wing and ground transported trauma patients represent heterogeneous populations. Accounting for these differences, rotor-wing patients were found to outperform their predicted mortality, whereas ground patients underperformed predictions.
Emergency department thoracotomy (EDT) is a rare and potentially life-saving intervention performed for trauma patients in extremis. EDT is rare at Canadian trauma centres because of our infrequent occurrence of penetrating trauma. This study was undertaken to evaluate outcomes at a Canadian level 1 trauma facility and compare survival to large published datasets. Also, we evaluated the appropriateness of an EDT performed at our centre based on published national guidelines.
Retrospective medical record review of all patients undergoing an EDT during their resuscitation in the emergency department. Records were identified using our trauma registry, and all charts were manually reviewed. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge.
Over a 20-year period, 58 EDTs were performed with 6 (10.3%) survivors. Patients undergoing an EDT secondary to penetrating trauma had the highest survival (5 of 24 patients or 20.8% survival) compared to patients undergoing an EDT for blunt trauma (1 of 34 patients or 2.9% survival). Patients undergoing an EDT who had not suffered cardiac arrest represented the group with the highest survival rate (3 of 6 patients or 50% survival). The majority of EDTs (79.3%) were indicated, and no patient undergoing an EDT survived if it was performed outside of published guidelines.
Survival following an EDT in our small, regional trauma centre is consistent with survival rates from larger published datasets. An EDT should continue to be performed under accepted clinical indications.
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