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Controlling bleeding early in the prehospital and military setting is an extremely important and life-saving skill. Wound clamping is a newly introduced technique that may augment both the effectiveness and logistics of wound packing with any gauze product. As these devices may be inadvertently removed, the potential consequences of such were examined in a simulated, extreme, inadvertent disengagement.
The wound clamp used was an iTClamp (Innovative Trauma Care; Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) that was applied and forcefully removed (skin-pull) from the skin of both a human cadaver and swine. Sixty skin-pull tests were sequentially performed to measure the pull weight required to remove the device, any potential skin and device damage, how the device failed, and if the device could be re-applied.
Observations of the skin revealed that other than the expected eight small needle holes from device application, no other damage to the skin was sustained in 98.3% of cases. Conversely, of the 60 devices pulled, 93.3% of the devices sustained no damage and all could be re-applied. Four (6.7%) of the devices remained in place despite a maximum pull weight >22lbF (pound-force). The mean pull weights for pin bar pull were (lbF): vertical 9.2 (SD=5.0); perpendicular 2.5 (SD=1.7); and parallel 5.3 (SD=3.1). For the encompassed pull position group, mean pull weights were (lbF): vertical 5.7 (SD=2.3); perpendicular 3.0 (SD=2.5); and parallel 14.5 (SD=3.5). The overall mean for all groups was 6.7 (SD=5.2). The two main reasons that the iTClamp was pulled off were because the friction lock let go or the needles slipped out of one side of the skin due to the angle of the pull.
Inadvertent, forcible removal of the iTClamp created essentially no skin damage seen when the wound clamp was forcibly removed from either cadaver or swine models in a variety of positions and directions. Thus, the risks of deployment in operational environments do not seem to be increased.
MckeeJL, LakshminarasimhanP, AtkinsonI, LaPortaAJ, KirkpatrickAW. Evaluation of Skin Damage from Accidental Removal of a Hemostatic Wound Clamp (The iTClamp). Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):651–656.
Ultrasonic assessment of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) as a non-invasive measure of intracranial pressure (ICP) has been evaluated in the literature as a potential valid technique for rapid ICP estimation in the absence of invasive intracranial monitoring. The technique can be challenging to perform and little literature exists surrounding intra-operator variability.
In this study we describe the creation of a novel model of ONSD to be utilized in ultrasound training of this technique. We demonstrate the realistic ultrasonographic images created utilizing this novel model.
We designed ocular models composed of gelatin spheres and variable three dimensional printed cylinders, which simulate the globe of the eye and variable ONSD's respectively. These models were suspended in a gelatin background and ultrasound of the ONSD was conducted using standard techniques described in the literature.
This model produces clear and accurate representation of ONSD that closely mimics in vivo images. It is affordable and easy to produce in large quantities, portending its use in an educational environment.
Utilizing the standard linear array ultrasound probe for ONSD measurements in our model provided realistic images comparable to in vivo. This provides an affordable and exciting means to test intra- and inter- operator variability in a standardized environment. Knowing this, we can further apply this novel model of ONSD to ultrasound teaching and training courses with confidence in its ability and the technique's ability to produce consistent results.