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Drawing on early work on ethical leadership, we argue that when leaders engage in leader moral hypocrisy (i.e., ethical promotion without ethical demonstration), followers can experience psychological reactance—a negative response to a perceived restriction of freedom—which can have negative downstream consequences. In a survey of employee–manager dyads (study 1), we demonstrate that leader moral hypocrisy is positively associated with follower psychological reactance, which increases follower deviance. In two subsequent laboratory experiments, we find similar patterns of results (study 2) and explore potential alternative mechanisms (study 3). We demonstrate in a final experiment with working adults that the relationship between leader moral hypocrisy and psychological reactance is partly explained by increased perceptions of a leader’s use of power (study 4). We discuss the implications of our findings and advocate for further understanding of the risks associated with psychological reactance in response to leaders and other workplace situations.
We present seismic measurements of the firn column at Korff Ice Rise, West Antarctica, including measurements of compressional-wave velocity and attenuation. We describe a modified spectral-ratio method of measuring the seismic quality factor (Q) based on analysis of diving waves, which, combined with a stochastic method of error propagation, enables us to characterise the attenuative structure of firn in greater detail than has previously been possible. Q increases from 56 ± 23 in the uppermost 12 m to 570 ± 450 between 55 and 77 m depth. We corroborate our method with consistent measurements obtained via primary reflection, multiple, source ghost, and critically refracted waves. Using the primary reflection and its ghost, we find Q = 53 ± 20 in the uppermost 20 m of firn. From the critical refraction, we find Q = 640 ± 400 at 90 m depth. Our method aids the understanding of the seismic structure of firn and benefits characterisation of deeper glaciological targets, providing an alternative means of correcting seismic reflection amplitudes in cases where conventional methods of Q correction may be impossible.
Knowledge graphs have become a common approach for knowledge representation. Yet, the application of graph methodology is elusive due to the sheer number and complexity of knowledge sources. In addition, semantic incompatibilities hinder efforts to harmonize and integrate across these diverse sources. As part of The Biomedical Translator Consortium, we have developed a knowledge graph–based question-answering system designed to augment human reasoning and accelerate translational scientific discovery: the Translator system. We have applied the Translator system to answer biomedical questions in the context of a broad array of diseases and syndromes, including Fanconi anemia, primary ciliary dyskinesia, multiple sclerosis, and others. A variety of collaborative approaches have been used to research and develop the Translator system. One recent approach involved the establishment of a monthly “Question-of-the-Month (QotM) Challenge” series. Herein, we describe the structure of the QotM Challenge; the six challenges that have been conducted to date on drug-induced liver injury, cannabidiol toxicity, coronavirus infection, diabetes, psoriatic arthritis, and ATP1A3-related phenotypes; the scientific insights that have been gleaned during the challenges; and the technical issues that were identified over the course of the challenges and that can now be addressed to foster further development of the prototype Translator system. We close with a discussion on Large Language Models such as ChatGPT and highlight differences between those models and the Translator system.
To examine differences in noticing and use of nutrition information comparing jurisdictions with and without mandatory menu labelling policies and examine differences among sociodemographic groups.
Cross-sectional data from the International Food Policy Study (IFPS) online survey.
IFPS participants from Australia, Canada, Mexico, United Kingdom and USA in 2019.
Adults aged 18–99; n 19 393.
Participants in jurisdictions with mandatory policies were significantly more likely to notice and use nutrition information, order something different, eat less of their order and change restaurants compared to jurisdictions without policies. For noticed nutrition information, the differences between policy groups were greatest comparing older to younger age groups and comparing high education (difference of 10·7 %, 95 % CI 8·9, 12·6) to low education (difference of 4·1 %, 95 % CI 1·8, 6·3). For used nutrition information, differences were greatest comparing high education (difference of 4·9 %, 95 % CI 3·5, 6·4) to low education (difference of 1·8 %, 95 % CI 0·2, 3·5). Mandatory labelling was associated with an increase in ordering something different among the majority ethnicity group and a decrease among the minority ethnicity group. For changed restaurant visited, differences were greater for medium and high education compared to low education, and differences were greater for higher compared to lower income adequacy.
Participants living in jurisdictions with mandatory nutrition information in restaurants were more likely to report noticing and using nutrition information, as well as greater efforts to modify their consumption. However, the magnitudes of these differences were relatively small.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) has been a leader in weed science research covering topics ranging from the development and use of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics to basic mechanistic studies, including biotic resistance of desirable plant communities and herbicide resistance. ARS weed scientists have worked in agricultural and natural ecosystems, including agronomic and horticultural crops, pastures, forests, wild lands, aquatic habitats, wetlands, and riparian areas. Through strong partnerships with academia, state agencies, private industry, and numerous federal programs, ARS weed scientists have made contributions to discoveries in the newest fields of robotics and genetics, as well as the traditional and fundamental subjects of weed–crop competition and physiology and integration of weed control tactics and practices. Weed science at ARS is often overshadowed by other research topics; thus, few are aware of the long history of ARS weed science and its important contributions. This review is the result of a symposium held at the Weed Science Society of America’s 62nd Annual Meeting in 2022 that included 10 separate presentations in a virtual Weed Science Webinar Series. The overarching themes of management tactics (IWM, biological control, and automation), basic mechanisms (competition, invasive plant genetics, and herbicide resistance), and ecosystem impacts (invasive plant spread, climate change, conservation, and restoration) represent core ARS weed science research that is dynamic and efficacious and has been a significant component of the agency’s national and international efforts. This review highlights current studies and future directions that exemplify the science and collaborative relationships both within and outside ARS. Given the constraints of weeds and invasive plants on all aspects of food, feed, and fiber systems, there is an acknowledged need to face new challenges, including agriculture and natural resources sustainability, economic resilience and reliability, and societal health and well-being.
I've been thinking quite a lot of late about how, as a settler, I can more fully and effectively support Indigenous peoples struggling for climate justice. In the process, I've found Andrea Sullivan-Clarke's recent insights about decolonizing allyship most helpful. After offering a brief summary of the necessary and sufficient conditions Sullivan-Clarke identifies for decolonizing allyship, I reflect on how I personally can strive to meet these conditions while remaining aware that—like my recovery from alcoholism—my work will never be complete.
With the aim of producing a 3D representation of tumors, imaging and molecular annotation of xenografts and tumors (IMAXT) uses a large variety of modalities in order to acquire tumor samples and produce a map of every cell in the tumor and its host environment. With the large volume and variety of data produced in the project, we developed automatic data workflows and analysis pipelines. We introduce a research methodology where scientists connect to a cloud environment to perform analysis close to where data are located, instead of bringing data to their local computers. Here, we present the data and analysis infrastructure, discuss the unique computational challenges and describe the analysis chains developed and deployed to generate molecularly annotated tumor models. Registration is achieved by use of a novel technique involving spherical fiducial marks that are visible in all imaging modalities used within IMAXT. The automatic pipelines are highly optimized and allow to obtain processed datasets several times quicker than current solutions narrowing the gap between data acquisition and scientific exploitation.
Infants and children born with CHD are at significant risk for neurodevelopmental delays and abnormalities. Individualised developmental care is widely recognised as best practice to support early neurodevelopment for medically fragile infants born premature or requiring surgical intervention after birth. However, wide variability in clinical practice is consistently demonstrated in units caring for infants with CHD. The Cardiac Newborn Neuroprotective Network, a Special Interest Group of the Cardiac Neurodevelopmental Outcome Collaborative, formed a working group of experts to create an evidence-based developmental care pathway to guide clinical practice in hospital settings caring for infants with CHD. The clinical pathway, “Developmental Care Pathway for Hospitalized Infants with Congenital Heart Disease,” includes recommendations for standardised developmental assessment, parent mental health screening, and the implementation of a daily developmental care bundle, which incorporates individualised assessments and interventions tailored to meet the needs of this unique infant population and their families. Hospitals caring for infants with CHD are encouraged to adopt this developmental care pathway and track metrics and outcomes using a quality improvement framework.
Tackling Scotland's drug-related deaths and improving outcomes from substance misuse treatments, including residential rehabilitation, is a national priority.
To analyse and report outcomes up to 4 years after attendance at a substance misuse residential rehabilitation programme (Lothians and Edinburgh Abstinence Programme).
In total, 145 participants were recruited to this longitudinal quantitative cohort study of an abstinence-based residential rehabilitation programme based on the therapeutic community model; 87 of these participants were followed up at 4 years. Outcomes are reported for seven subsections of the Addiction Severity Index-X (ASI-X), together with frequency of alcohol use, heroin use, injecting drug use and rates of abstinence from substances of misuse.
Significant improvement in most outcomes at 4 years compared with admission scores were found. Completing the programme was associated with greater rates of abstinence, reduced alcohol use and improvements in alcohol status score (Mann–Whitney U = 626, P = 0.013), work satisfaction score (U = 596, P = 0.016) and psychiatric status score (U = 562, P = 0.007) on the ASI-X, in comparison with non-completion. Abstinence rates improved from 12% at baseline to 48% at 4 years, with the rate for those completing the programme increasing from 14.5% to 60.7% (χ2(2, 87) = 9.738, P = 0.002). Remaining abstinent from substances at follow-up was associated with better outcomes in the medical (U = 540, P < 0.001), psychiatric (U = 273.5, P < 0.001) and alcohol (U = 322.5, P < 0.001) subsections of the ASI-X.
Attending this abstinence-based rehabilitation programme was associated with positive changes in psychological and social well-being and harm reduction from substance use at 4-year follow-up, with stability of change from years 1 to 4.
To explore on-package formula messaging with reference to legislation and government-issued guidance in Great Britain (GB).
Formula products were identified, pictures of all sides of packs collated and on-package text and images were coded. Compliance with both GB legislation and guidance issued by the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) was assessed.
All formula packs that were available for sale over the counter in GB between April and October 2020.
Formula packs (n 71) including infant formula, follow-on formula, growing-up formula and specialist formula were identified, coded and analysed.
In total, 41 % of formula packs included nutrition claims, and 18 % included health claims that may be considered non-permitted, according to DHSC guidance. Additionally, 72 % of products showed images considered ‘non-permitted’. Breast Milk Substitute (BMS) legislation states infant and follow-on formula packs should be clearly distinguishable but does not provide criteria to assess similarity. Based on DHSC guidance, 72 % of infant and follow-on formula packs were categorised as showing a high degree of similarity. Marketing practices not covered by current legislation were widespread, such as 94 % of infant formula packs including advertisements for follow-on or growing-up formula.
Text and images considered non-permitted according to DHSC guidance for implementing BMS legislation were widespread on formula products available in GB. As terms such as ‘similarity’ are not defined in BMS legislation, it was unclear if breaches had occurred. Findings support the WHO call for loopholes in domestic legislation to be closed as a matter of urgency.
In the general population, irritability is associated with later depression. Despite irritability being more prevalent in autistic children, the long-term sequelae are not well explored. We tested whether irritability in early childhood predicted depression symptoms in autistic adolescents, and whether associations could be explained by difficulties in peer relationships and lower educational engagement. Analyses tested the longitudinal associations between early childhood irritability (ages 3–5) and adolescent depression symptoms (age 14) in a prospective inception cohort of autistic children (N = 390), followed from early in development shortly after they received a clinical diagnosis. Mediators were measured in mid-childhood (age 10) by a combination of measures, from which latent factors for peer relationships and educational engagement were estimated. Results showed early childhood irritability was positively associated with adolescent depression symptoms, and this association remained when adjusting for baseline depression. A significant indirect pathway through peer relationships was found, which accounted for around 13% of the association between early childhood irritability and adolescent depression, suggesting peer problems may partially mediate the association between irritability and later depression. No mediation effects were found for education engagement. Results highlight the importance of early screening and intervention for co-occurring irritability and peer problems in young autistic children.
When judging their likelihood of success in competitive tasks, people tend to be overoptimistic for easy tasks and overpessimistic for hard tasks (the shared circumstance effect; SCE). Previous research has shown that feedback and experience from repeated-play competitions has a limited impact on SCEs. However, in this paper, we suggest that competitive situations, in which the shared difficulty or easiness of the task is more transparent, will be more amenable to debiasing via repeated play. Pairs of participants competed in, made predictions about, and received feedback on, multiple rounds of a throwing task involving both easy- and hard-to-aim objects. Participants initially showed robust SCEs, but they also showed a significant reduction in bias after only one round of feedback. These and other results support a more positive view (than suggested from past research) on the potential for SCEs to be debiased through outcome feedback.
People must often perform calculations in order to produce a numeric estimate (e.g., a grocery-store shopper estimating the total price of his or her shopping cart contents). The current studies were designed to test whether estimates based on calculations are influenced by comparisons with irrelevant anchors. Previous research has demonstrated that estimates across a wide range of contexts assimilate toward anchors, but none has examined estimates based on calculations. In two studies, we had participants compare the answers to math problems with anchors. In both studies, participants’ estimates assimilated toward the anchor values. This effect was moderated by time limit such that the anchoring effects were larger when the participants’ ability to engage in calculations was limited by a restrictive time limit.
People often use tools for tasks, and sometimes there is uncertainty about whether a given task can be completed with a given tool. This project explored whether, when, and how people’s optimism about successfully completing a task with a given tool is affected by the contextual salience of a better or worse tool. In six studies, participants were faced with novel tasks. For each task, they were assigned a tool but also exposed to a comparison tool that was better or worse in utility (or sometimes similar in utility). In some studies, the tool comparisons were essentially social comparisons, because the tool was assigned to another person. In other studies, the tool comparisons were merely counterfactual rather than social. The studies revealed contrast effects on optimism, and the effect worked in both directions. That is, worse comparison tools boosted optimism and better tools depressed optimism. The contrast effects were observed regardless of the general type of comparison (e.g., social, counterfactual). The comparisons also influenced discrete decisions about which task to attempt (for a prize), which is an important finding for ruling out superficial scaling explanations for the contrast effects. It appears that people fail to exclude irrelevant tool-comparison information from consideration when assessing their likelihood of success on a task, resulting in biased optimism and decisions.
A precise knowledge of landfast sea-ice (fast-ice) thickness is relevant to many different disciplines. Sea Ice Monitoring Stations (SIMS) are used to measure time series of fast-ice thickness at a location. SIMS measure ice and ocean temperature via thermistor strings with many different methods for extracting sea-ice thickness from temperature existing. This study investigates: if thickness results from temperature recorded by SIMS of different designs, and analysed with different methods are comparable; which methods are recommended for their robustness, precision and accuracy and how they compare to independent thickness measurements; how otherwise unuseable data can be salvaged through specific SIMS designs. We present an analysis of fast-ice thickness calculated from SIMS deployed in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica and in the Chukchi Sea near Utqiaġvik, Alaska, over two decades. We find that median thicknesses derived by different methods agree within 1 ± 1.5 cm for McMurdo Sound and 2 ± 3 cm for Utqiaġvik. Thus, it is possible to confidently compare data collected from different stations and analysed with different methods. The vertical gradient of sea-ice temperature gives the best results for fast-ice thickness during the growth season and including standard resistors in a thermistor string can reduce potential data loss due to noise.
A 2016 study season and 2017 excavation season at the 95-hectare walled site of Kurd Qaburstan on the Erbil plain have generated a variety of new results. Geophysical survey on the lower town revealed details of the Middle Bronze occupation in the southeast part of the site, including the city wall, a large open area, streets, houses, and a monumental temple comparable to examples from Tell al Rimah, Aššur, and Larsa. Excavations confirmed the Middle Bronze date of the temple and explored further Middle Bronze contexts elsewhere on the lower town. On the High Mound North Slope, Middle Bronze occupation included a fortification wall and large-scale architecture inside it. On the High Mound East, Late Bronze architecture of apparent elite character was documented. Archaeobotanical analyses complementing the excavations reveal the existence of naan-style bread in both Middle and Late Bronze contexts. Given radiocarbon and ceramic results, the Middle Bronze occupation at Kurd Qaburstan is datable to c. 1800 B.C., while the Late Bronze phases on the High Mound East belong to an early LB horizon in the 16–15th centuries B.C., perhaps predating the imposition of Mittani political authority in the region.
Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) is increasingly recognised as a valuable tool for glaciological seismic applications, although analysing the large data volumes generated in acquisitions poses computational challenges. We show the potential of active-source DAS to image and characterise subglacial sediment beneath a fast-flowing Greenlandic outlet glacier, estimating the thickness of sediment layers to be 20–30 m. However, the lack of subglacial velocity constraint limits the accuracy of this estimate. Constraint could be provided by analysing cryoseismic events in a counterpart 3-day record of passive seismicity through, for example, seismic tomography, but locating them within the 9 TB data volume is computationally inefficient. We describe experiments with data compression using the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) transform ahead of training a convolutional neural network, that provides a ~300-fold improvement in efficiency. In combining active and passive-source and our machine learning framework, the potential of large DAS datasets could be unlocked for a range of future applications.
Aphodius fimetarius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae: Aphodiini) sensu lato is a taxon of probable European origin common in cattle dung across North America. This species has recently been recognised as a species complex composed of A. fimetarius and Aphodius pedellus (De Geer, 1774), with overlapping distributions in North America. A previous report that only A. pedellus is present in Canada was based on examination of specimens almost solely from the United States of America. In the present study, we examined the morphology of specimens (n = 2091) from localities across Canada. In combination with DNA barcoding, our results confirm that only A. pedellus is present in Canada. Results of similarity analysis confirm reduced genetic diversity among North American specimens of A. pedellus, consistent with the hypothesis that this species was introduced onto the continent during European settlement.