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Involving stakeholders has been acknowledged as a way to improve quality and relevance in health research. The mechanisms that support effective research engagement with stakeholders have not been studied in the area of concussion. Concussion is a large public health concern worldwide with billions of dollars spent on health care services and research with improvements in care and service delivery not moving forward as quickly as desired. Enabling effective stakeholder engagement could improve concussion research and care.
The aim of the study was to identify potential benefits, challenges, and motivators to engaging in research by gathering the perspectives of adults with lived experience of concussion.
A thematic analysis of qualitative responses collected from a convenience sample attending a provincial brain injury conference (n = 60) was undertaken using open coding followed by axial coding.
Four themes regarding benefits to engagement emerged: first-hand account, meaningful recovery, research relevance, and better understanding of gaps. Three forces inhibited engagement: environmental barriers, injury-related constraints, and personal deterrents. Four enablers supported engagement: focus on positive impact, build connections, create a supportive environment, and provide financial assistance.
Understanding stakeholder’s perspectives on research engagement is an important issue that may serve to improve research quality. There may be unique nuances at play with injury-specific stakeholders that require researchers to consider a balance between reducing inhibitors while supporting enablers. These findings are preliminary and limited. Nevertheless, they provide needed insight and guidance for ongoing investigation regarding improvement of stakeholder engagement in concussion research.
To assess knowledge about infection prevention among nursing home personnel and identify gaps potentially addressable through a quality improvement collaborative.
Baseline knowledge assessment of catheter-associated urinary tract infection, asymptomatic bacteriuria, antimicrobial stewardship, and general infection prevention practices for healthcare-associated infections.
Nursing homes across 14 states participating in the national “Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Safety Program for Long-Term Care: Healthcare-Associated Infections/Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection.”
Each facility aimed to obtain responses from at least 10 employees (5 licensed and 5 unlicensed). We assessed the percentage of correct responses.
A total of 184 (78%) of 236 participating facilities provided 1 response or more. Of the 1,626 respondents, 822 (50.6%) were licensed; 117 facilities (63.6%) were for-profit. While 99.1% of licensed personnel recognized the definition of asymptomatic bacteriuria, only 36.1% knew that pyuria could not distinguish a urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria. Among unlicensed personnel, 99.6% knew to notify a nurse if a resident developed fever or confusion, but only 27.7% knew that cloudy, smelly urine should not routinely be cultured. Although 100% of respondents reported receiving training in hand hygiene, less than 30% knew how long to rub hands (28.5% licensed, 25.2% unlicensed) or the most effective agent to use (11.7% licensed, 10.6% unlicensed).
This national assessment demonstrates an important need to enhance infection prevention knowledge among healthcare personnel working in nursing homes to improve resident safety and quality of care.
This book explores the power of print and the politics of the book in South Africa from a range of disciplinary perspectives—historical, bibliographic, literary-critical, sociological, and cultural studies. The essays collected here, by leading international scholars, address a range of topics as varied as: the role of print cultures in contests over the nature of the colonial public sphere in the nineteenth century; orthography; iimbongi, orature and the canon; book- collecting and libraries; print and transnationalism; Indian Ocean cosmopolitanisms; books in war; how the fates of South African texts, locally and globally, have been affected by their material instantiations; photocomics and other ephemera; censorship, during and after apartheid; books about art and books as art; local academic publishing; and the challenge of ‘book history’ for literary and cultural criticism in contemporary South Africa.
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) may play a major role in embryo development and the establishment of pregnancy in cattle. The biosynthesis of PGE2 implies the sequential transformation of arachidonic acid to PGH2 by cyclooxygenases (COXs), then the conversion of PGH2 to PGE2 by prostaglandin E synthases (PGESs). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine the expression of COX-1, COX-2, microsomal PGES-1 (mPGES-1), microsomal PGES-2 (mPGES-2) and cytosolic PGES (cPGES) mRNAs in day 7 in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos from oocytes collected by ovum pick-up in Holstein heifers. Transcripts for COX-2 and mPGES-1 were detected in all embryos, whereas transcripts for COX-1 and mPGES-2 were not detected and cPGESs were at the limit of detection in 40% of embryos. Levels of COX-2 and mPGES-1 mRNAs were significantly higher in blastocysts and expanded blastocysts than in morulae and early blastocysts. Furthermore, excellent-quality embryos (grade 1) displayed higher levels of both COX-2 and mPGES-1 than did embryos of good and medium qualities (grades 2–3). Our results suggest that bovine IVP embryos at the morula and blastocyst stages use exclusively the COX-2/mPGES-1 pathway for PGE2 biosynthesis, and that PGE2 is potentially involved in blastocyst expansion and developmental competence.