To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This collection of essays, by leading scholars and practitioners from a range of countries, pays homage to a pre-eminent figure in the field of intellectual property: Sam Ricketson. Inspired by the breadth of Ricketson’s work, the contributions explore issues from a perspective that looks across the field – in particular, across the regimes, jurisdictions, disciplines and professions of IP. Topics explored across the regimes include the nature of IP subject matter, overlaps in protection, historical connections between copyright and patents and the transplantation of civil law moral rights to common law copyright. In across jurisdictions, chapters address, inter alia, the application of private international law to cross-border IP disputes, the Berne Convention and AI-authored works, how countries might exit the Berne Convention and dispute settlement under TRIPS. The intersection of copyright and privacy laws, the relationship between privacy, personality and trade mark laws, the teaching of IP and human rights and the conduct of empirical and historical research in IP are among the matters considered across disciplines. Contributions across professions include the participation of scholars in IP policy making, the IP textbook in legal practice, and the role of expert evidence in IP litigation.
Using as a starting point the work of internationally-renowned Australian scholar Sam Ricketson, whose contributions to intellectual property (IP) law and practice have been extensive and richly diverse, this volume examines topical and fundamental issues from across IP law. With authors from the US, UK, Europe, Asia, Australia and New Zealand, the book is structured in four parts, which move across IP regimes, jurisdictions, disciplines and professions, addressing issues that include what exactly is protected by IP regimes; regime differences, overlaps and transplants; copyright authorship and artificial intelligence; internationalization of IP through public and private international law; IP intersections with historical and empirical research, human rights, privacy, personality and cultural identity; IP scholars and universities, and the influence of treatises and textbooks. This work should be read by anyone interested in understanding the central issues in the evolving field of IP law.
The field of psychiatry would benefit significantly from developing objective biomarkers that could facilitate the early identification of heterogeneous subtypes of illness. Critically, although machine learning pattern recognition methods have been applied recently to predict many psychiatric disorders, these techniques have not been utilized to predict subtypes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including the dissociative subtype of PTSD (PTSD + DS).
Using Multiclass Gaussian Process Classification within PRoNTo, we examined the classification accuracy of: (i) the mean amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (mALFF; reflecting spontaneous neural activity during rest); and (ii) seed-based amygdala complex functional connectivity within 181 participants [PTSD (n = 81); PTSD + DS (n = 49); and age-matched healthy trauma-unexposed controls (n = 51)]. We also computed mass-univariate analyses in order to observe regional group differences [false-discovery-rate (FDR)-cluster corrected p < 0.05, k = 20].
We found that extracted features could predict accurately the classification of PTSD, PTSD + DS, and healthy controls, using both resting-state mALFF (91.63% balanced accuracy, p < 0.001) and amygdala complex connectivity maps (85.00% balanced accuracy, p < 0.001). These results were replicated using independent machine learning algorithms/cross-validation procedures. Moreover, areas weighted as being most important for group classification also displayed significant group differences at the univariate level. Here, whereas the PTSD + DS group displayed increased activation within emotion regulation regions, the PTSD group showed increased activation within the amygdala, globus pallidus, and motor/somatosensory regions.
The current study has significant implications for advancing machine learning applications within the field of psychiatry, as well as for developing objective biomarkers indicative of diagnostic heterogeneity.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Our main objectives are to study sensory encoding in the adult cortex and quantify rodents’ ability to use intracortical microstimulation to guide behavior. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Three rats were implanted with unilateral bipolar stimulating electrodes. The electrodes were connected to a wireless neural stimulator housed in the rat’s backpack. The rat’s swim path was tracked by a video camera above the circular pool, and stimulation parameters were updated in real-time based on distance from the platform. Stimulation was delivered as the distance from the platform increased. Stimulation amplitude was determined through behavioral threshold testing, and parameters ranged from 15–75 μA with 100-Hz pulse trains and 0.2-ms pulses. Rats were first challenged with the 4-platform task in which the submerged platform was randomized across 4 possible locations. This dissociated visual cues from the platform location, as rats had knowledge of the 4 possible locations, but had to use stimulation to guide them efficiently. Next, rats were tasked with the more challenging random-platform task. Visual cues were completely dissociated from the platform location by randomizing the platform location across the entire pool. Performance using the neuroprosthetic device was assessed by comparing trials when the device was on (stimulation trial) Versus off (no-stim trial) for the 2 tasks. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 4-platform task: Rats visited less potential platform locations when the neuroprosthetic was on Versus off. Rats were also more likely to visit the correct platform location on their first swim trajectory when brain stimulation was delivered. When artificial cues were not available, rats had a greater chance of visiting the platform location from the previous trial. This indicated that rats relied on visuospatial memory without the neuroprosthetic. Random platform task: Performance was measured by taking the ratio of the rat’s actual path length to the optimal path length. When the neuroprosthetic was on, rats demonstrated superior performance through a smaller path to length ratio compared with when the device was off. The platform locations of catch trials were matched to a random subset of stimulation trials, permitting a paired sample t-test. Both rats had significantly shorter path lengths when the device was on. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Rodents have excellent navigation skills that have been well studied. They have been shown to rely on multimodal sensory information from visual, olfactory, auditory, and idiothetic cues to navigate through their environment. The importance of these cues depends on both their environmental presence and task relevance. In the original Morris water maze experiment, rats use vision to form a visuospatial map of the platform location for allocentric navigation. Here, we have shown that sensory augmented rats can pick up on novel sensory information delivered through ICMS to efficiently find a hidden platform when visual cues are made irrelevant.Our results have implications for the design of the bi-directional sensorimotor neuroprosthetic. We have demonstrated that mammals can interpret artificial sensory information to guide behavior. Future directions include investigating sensory encoding in other primary sensory areas and downstream targets along the somatosensory neuraxis.
To measure transmission frequencies and risk factors for household acquisition of community-associated and healthcare-associated (HA-) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Prospective cohort study from October 4, 2008, through December 3, 2012.
Seven acute care hospitals in or near Toronto, Canada.
Total of 99 MRSA-colonized or MRSA-infected case patients and 183 household contacts.
Baseline interviews were conducted, and surveillance cultures were collected monthly for 3 months from household members, pets, and 8 prespecified high-use environmental locations. Isolates underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing.
Overall, of 183 household contacts 89 (49%) were MRSA colonized, with 56 (31%) detected at baseline. MRSA transmission from index case to contacts negative at baseline occurred in 27 (40%) of 68 followed-up households. Strains were identical within households. The transmission risk for HA-MRSA was 39% compared with 40% (P=.95) for community-associated MRSA. HA-MRSA index cases were more likely to be older and not practice infection control measures (P=.002–.03). Household acquisition risk factors included requiring assistance and sharing bath towels (P=.001–.03). Environmental contamination was identified in 78 (79%) of 99 households and was more common in HA-MRSA households.
Household transmission of community-associated and HA-MRSA strains was common and the difference in transmission risk was not statistically significant.
Background: Interventions for anger represent the largest body of research on the adaptation of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for people with intellectual disabilities. The extent to which the effectiveness of these interventions reflects the behavioural or cognitive components of CBT is uncertain. This arises in part because there are few measures of anger-related cognitions. Method: The Profile of Anger-related Cognitions (PAC) is built around interpersonal scenarios that the participant identifies as personally anger-provoking, and was designed as an extension of the Profile of Anger Coping Skills (PACS). A conversational presentational style is used to approach ratings of anger experienced in those situations and of four relevant cognitive dimensions: attribution of hostile intent, unfairness, victimhood, and helplessness. The PAC, and other measures, including the PACS, was administered to (i) people with ID identified as having problems with anger control (n = 12) and (ii) university students (n = 23); its psychometric properties were investigated and content analyses were conducted of participants’ verbal responses. In a third study, clinicians (n = 6) were surveyed for their impression of using the PAC in the assessment of clients referred for help with anger problems. Results: The PAC had good consistency and test-retest reliability, and the total score on the four cognitive dimensions correlated significantly with anger ratings but not with impersonal measures of anger disposition. The predominant cognitions reported were perceptions of unfairness and helplessness. People with ID and university students were in most respects very similar in both the psychometric analyses and the content analyses of their verbal responses. The PAC had high acceptability both to people with ID and to clinicians. Conclusions: The PAC may be a useful instrument for both clinical and research purposes. Personal relevance and the conversational mode of administration are particular strengths.
Despite advances in delirium knowledge and the publication of best practice guidelines, uncertainties exist regarding assessment of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia (DSD). An international survey of delirium specialists was undertaken to evaluate current practice.
Invitations to participate in an online survey were distributed by email among members of four international delirium associations with additional publication on their websites. The survey covered the assessment and diagnosis of DSD in clinical practice and research studies. Questions were structured around current practice and attitudes.
The 205 responders were mostly confident that they could detect DSD with 60% rating their confidence at 7 or above on a likert scale of 0 (none) to 10 (excellent). Seventy-six percent felt that Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) was the most challenging dementia subtype in which to diagnose DSD. Several scales were used to assess for the presence of DSD including the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) (54%), DSM-5 criteria (25%) and CAM-ICU (15%). Responders stated that attention (71%), fluctuation in cognitive status (65%), and arousability (41%) were the most clinically useful features to assess when diagnosing DSD. Motor fluctuations were also deemed important but 61% had no specific test to monitor these.
The largest survey of DSD practice to date demonstrates that despite good levels of confidence in recognizing DSD, there exists a lack of consensus concerning assessment and diagnosis globally. These findings suggest the need for the development of more research leading to precise diagnostic criteria and comprehensive guidelines regarding the assessment and diagnosis of DSD.
Lithographically fabricated gold nanowires are optically excited with 532nm CW laser and the local temperature change is measured in air, pure water and various concentration aqueous solutions of ionic solutes NaCl, Na2SO4 and MgSO4 using the thermal sensor film of Al0.94Ga0.06N embedded with Er3+ ions. The interface thermal resistance for heat transfer from the excited nanowires into the surrounding liquid is determined from the slopes of the temperature change versus laser intensity plots obtained for the nanowire excitation under various solutions. Addition of ionic solute molecules into the solution decreases the interface thermal resistance and hence leads to increased heat dissipation into the surrounding liquid. Interface thermal resistance decreases exponentially with the ionic strength of solution and saturates around zero for solution ionic strength of 0.3M and higher.