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Internalised stigma in young people meeting criteria for at-risk mental states (ARMS) has been highlighted as an important issue, and it has been suggested that provision of cognitive therapy may increase such stigma.
To investigate the effects of cognitive therapy on internalised stigma using a secondary analysis of data from the EDIE-2 trial.
Participants meeting criteria for ARMS were recruited as part of a multisite randomised controlled trial of cognitive therapy for prevention and amelioration of psychosis. Participants were assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months using measures of psychotic experiences, symptoms and internalised stigma.
Negative appraisals of experiences were significantly reduced in the group assigned to cognitive therapy (estimated difference at 12 months was −1.36 (95% Cl −2.69 to −0.02), P = 0.047). There was no difference in social acceptability of experiences (estimated difference at 12 months was 0.46, 95% Cl −0.05 to 0.98, P = 0.079).
These findings suggest that, rather than increasing internalised stigma, cognitive therapy decreases negative appraisals of unusual experiences in young people at risk of psychosis; as such, it is a non-stigmatising intervention for this population.
The theory of the preexistence of germs, either ovist or animalculist, was biological orthodoxy from the late seventeenth century to the end of the eighteenth. Although there were always dissenting voices, biologists of the calibre of Réaumur, Haller, Bonnet and Spallanzani lent the weight of their considerable authority to the theory – usually in its ovist version, which was generally considered to have superior empirical credentials, founded on a mass of observations of the development of eggs of various kinds. The rival theory of epigenesis seemed, to the orthodox biologists of the period, to require mysterious and occult powers or faculties and thus to be ruled out by the austere metaphysics of the mechanical philosophy.
In more recent times, the theory of preexistence has had a very bad press. It is generally derided as the product of speculative philosophy rather than of sober observation of and reflection on nature. In popular accounts of the history of biology, the ‘Russian dolls’ caricature of the theory of emboîtement is often introduced as a joke for the amusement of students. But if the theory was little more than speculative philosophy masquerading as empirical science, why did so many serious and sober biologists endorse it? The biologists of the period were all signed up – at least in principle – to the Baconian orthodoxy of the primacy of observation over theory. They must have been persuaded that the theory of preexistence had sound empirical credentials.
PZT ferroelectric capacitors are commonly fabricated using Pt electrodes. Crystallization in an oxygen ambient of sol-gel deposited PZT films is influenced by the nature of the adhesion layer used for the Pt electrode. Here we report results of the TEM investigation of the microstructures of PZT crystallized on Pt/Ti and Pt/TiO2 substrates. PZT films on either substrate show a two-phase microstructure consisting of larger perovskite grains and finegrained (<3nm) pyrochlore matrix. The perovskite grains are dense, free of any porosity and HRTEM shows the observed domains to be 90° <101> twins. EDS spectra detect a lower Pb/Ti ratio for the pyrochlore matrix compared to the perovskite grains. Differences between the two substrates consist of the perovskite to pyrochlore ratio and more importantly the perovskite grain size.