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The admiration of the Soviet Union amongst Britain's interwar scientific left is well known. This article reveals a parallel story. Focusing on the biologists Julian Huxley and Lancelot Hogben and the scientific journalist J.G. Crowther, I show that a number of scientific thinkers began to look west, to the US. In the mid- to late 1930s and into the 1940s, Huxley, Crowther and Hogben all visited the US and commented favourably on Roosevelt's New Deal, in particular its experimental approach to politics (in the form of planning). Huxley was first to appreciate the significance of the experiment; he looked to the Tennessee Valley Authority as a model of democratic planning by persuasion that could also be applied in Britain. Crowther, meanwhile, examined the US through the lens of history of science. In Famous American Men of Science (1937) and in lectures at Harvard University, he aimed to shed light on the flaws in the Constitution which were frustrating the New Deal. Finally, Hogben's interest in the US was related to his long-standing opposition to dialectical materialism, and when he finally saw the US at first hand, he regarded it as a model for how to bring about a planned socialist society through peaceful persuasion.
The Children of the Twins Early Development Study (CoTEDS) is a new prospective children-of-twins study in the UK, designed to investigate intergenerational associations across child developmental stages. CoTEDS will enable research on genetic and environmental factors that underpin parent–child associations, with a focus on mental health and cognitive-related traits. Through CoTEDS, we will have a new lens to examine the roles that parents play in influencing child development, as well as the genetic and environmental factors that shape parenting behavior and experiences. Recruitment is ongoing from the sample of approximately 20,000 contactable adult twins who have been enrolled in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) since infancy. TEDS twins are invited to register all offspring to CoTEDS at birth, with 554 children registered as of May 2019. By recruiting the second generation of TEDS participants, CoTEDS will include information on adult twins and their offspring from infancy. Parent questionnaire-based data collection is now underway for 1- and 2-year-old CoTEDS infants, with further waves of data collection planned. Current data collection includes the following primary constructs: child mental health, temperament, language and cognitive development; parent mental health and social relationships; parenting behaviors and feelings; and other socioecological factors. Measurement tools have been selected with reference to existing genetically informative cohort studies to ensure overlap in phenotypes measured at corresponding stages of development. This built-in study overlap is intended to enable replication and triangulation of future analyses across samples and research designs. Here, we summarize study protocols and measurement procedures and describe future plans.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
As in vivo cellular imaging becomes the necessary norm for understanding cancer and other diseases, new non-toxic nanoprobes are going to be required to replace the high quality cadmium based nanoprobes in use today. We are developing less toxic probes based on two types of luminescent ceramic nanoparticles: naturally occurring fluorescent (NOF) mimics and Ln-based ceramic oxide materials. The NOF minerals of interest and that have demonstrated initial luminosity of sufficient brightness for use in cellular studies that include sphalerite, scheelite, manganoan and perovskite nanoparticles. For Ln-based materials we have shown that Ln-doped zincite will also luminesce enough to allow for quantification in cellular activity. Once formed, these probes are functionalized such that they can be delivered to desired cellular targets. Probe derivatization has focused on surface capping with functionalized poly(ethyleneglycol) molecules/lipids to yield water soluble NCs and polyarginine-based transporters for transmembrane delivery. The probes are being evaluated for their luminescent properties, as well as their non-toxicity and ability to report on cell-signaling events with various cell lines using multi-spectral, confocal microscopy, and other techniques. Preliminary interdisciplinary studies have validated the basic approaches for the synthesis of NOF nanoprobes and the bio-delivery and imaging of nanoparticles. Work to optimize the design, delivery, and imaging of these new nanoprobes is expected to achieve the NIH directed goal of increasing in the sensitivity and specificity of molecular probes for imaging. Details of the synthesis, functionalization and biological imaging using these probes will be presented. This work partially supported by the United States Department of Energy under contract number DE-AC04-94AL85000. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy and by the National Institutes of health through the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, Grant #1 R21 EB005365-01. Information on this RFA (Innovation in Molecular Imaging Probes) can be found at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-RM-04-021.html.
A major challenge in addressing the loss of benefits and services provided by the natural environment is that it can be difficult to find ways for those who benefit from them to pay for their preservation. We examine one such context in Malawi, where erosion from soils disturbed by agriculture affects not only farmers’ incomes, but also damages aquatic habitat and inhibits the storage and hydropower potential of dams downstream. We demonstrate that payments from hydropower producers to farmers to maintain land cover and prevent erosion can have benefits for all parties involved.
In this chapter we discuss modelling and removing spatially-variant blur from photographs. We describe a compact global parameterization of camera-shake blur, based on the 3D rotation of the camera during the exposure. Our model uses three-parameter homographies to connect camera motion to image motion and, by assigning weights to a set of these homographies, can be seen as a generalization of the standard, spatially-invariant convolutional model of image blur. As such we show how existing algorithms, designed for spatially-invariant deblurring, can be ‘upgraded’ in a straightforward manner to handle spatially-variant blur instead. We demonstrate this with algorithms working on real images, showing results for blind estimation of blur parameters from single images, followed by non-blind image restoration using these parameters. Finally, we introduce an efficient approximation to the global model, which significantly reduces the computational cost of modelling the spatially-variant blur. By approximating the blur as locally-uniform, we can take advantage of fast Fourier-domain convolution and deconvolution, reducing the time required for blind deblurring by an order of magnitude.
Everybody is familiar with camera shake, since the resulting blur spoils many photos taken in low-light conditions. Camera-shake blur is caused by motion of the camera during the exposure; while the shutter is open, the camera passes through a sequence of different poses, each of which gives a different view of the scene. The sensor accumulates all of these views, summing them up to form the recorded image, which is blurred as a result. We would like to be able to deblur such images to recover the underlying sharp image, which we would have captured if the camera had not moved.
Depictions of race and gender stereotypes abound in various areas of Australian Aboriginal literature. This literature usually addresses the writers' responses to the injustice done to Aboriginal people by whites and the blatant racism that creeps into Australian society even today. Given the seriousness of these depictions, Aboriginal writers have seldom employed humor, making it a rather unexplored field in Aboriginal literature and criticism. Recently, though, an increasing number of Aboriginal authors have addressed issues of social injustice and racism by creating humorous situations that help readers recognize white Australians' immoral behavior. Memoirs by Kenny Laughton (Not Quite Men, No Longer Boys ), Robert Lowe (The Mish ), and Mabel Edmund (No Regrets ), novels by Mudrooroo (Doctor Wooreddy's Prescription for Enduring the Ending of the World , Doin Wildcat ), poetry by Samuel Wagan Watson (Of Muse, Meandering, and Midnight ), and plays by Kevin Gilbert (The Cherry Pickers ) and Jack Davis (No Sugar , The Dreamers ) are some of the genres in which Aboriginal authors have used humor. Leon Rappoport, a critic who writes on humor and stereotypes, praises those who address “sexual, racial, and other forbidden topics … by situating them in the context of humor, [because] the tensions that are aroused can be released as laughter” (50). Triggering an instant and natural reaction from readers, humor attracts a wide variety of audiences to Aboriginal literature because it presents the absurd and vicious nature of stereotypes, teaches lessons about the creativity of Aboriginal people, and suggests that hope and optimism characterize Aboriginal life.
What does it mean to “write of life”? And how does Aboriginal writing position itself in relation to the politics of life itself? The opening stanza to Jack Davis's poem about sixteen-year-old John Pat, brutally beaten by police in 1983, troubles the relation between the Aboriginal custom of not speaking the name of the dead and the necessary task of memorializing such trauma. One way to read the stanza is to identify the pious as a double category: the pious may be those whites who insist Davis “forget the past”; yet, paradoxically, the pious may equally refer to those voices of tradition from within the Aboriginal community that insist upon maintaining the taboo against speaking the name of the dead. John Pat's death is a tragedy, like that of so many Aboriginal victims of Australia's (post)colonial inheritance of trauma and continued structural violence and systematic dispossession. Speaking Pat's name is not only tragic because of his death in police custody, on “a concrete floor / a cell door,” but also because of Davis's necessary compulsion to continue to speak his name and thereby break a traditional taboo.