To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
The mammal family Tenrecidae (Afrotheria: Afrosoricida) is endemic to Madagascar. Here we present the conservation priorities for the 31 species of tenrec that were assessed or reassessed in 2015–2016 for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Six species (19.4%) were found to be threatened (4 Vulnerable, 2 Endangered) and one species was categorized as Data Deficient. The primary threat to tenrecs is habitat loss, mostly as a result of slash-and-burn agriculture, but some species are also threatened by hunting and incidental capture in fishing traps. In the longer term, climate change is expected to alter tenrec habitats and ranges. However, the lack of data for most tenrecs on population size, ecology and distribution, together with frequent changes in taxonomy (with many cryptic species being discovered based on genetic analyses) and the poorly understood impact of bushmeat hunting on spiny species (Tenrecinae), hinders conservation planning. Priority conservation actions are presented for Madagascar's tenrecs for the first time since 1990 and focus on conserving forest habitat (especially through improved management of protected areas) and filling essential knowledge gaps. Tenrec research, monitoring and conservation should be integrated into broader sustainable development objectives and programmes targeting higher profile species, such as lemurs, if we are to see an improvement in the conservation status of tenrecs in the near future.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
Eating less frequently is associated with increased obesity risk in older children but data are potentially confounded by reverse causation, where bigger children eat less often in an effort to control their weight. Longitudinal data, particularly in younger children, are scarce. We aimed to determine whether eating frequency (meals and snacks) at 2 years of age is associated with past, current or subsequent BMI.
Cohort analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Eating frequency at 2 years of age was estimated using 48 h diaries that recorded when each child ate meals and snacks (parent-defined) in five-minute blocks. Body length/height and weight were measured at 1, 2 and 3·5 years of age. Linear regression assessed associations between the number of eating occasions and BMI Z-score, before and after adjustment for potential confounding variables.
Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) study, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Children (n 371) aged 1–3·5 years.
On average, children ate 5·5 (sd 1·2) times/d at 2 years of age, with most children (88–89 %) eating 4–7 times/d. Eating frequency at 2 years was not associated with current (difference in BMI Z-score per additional eating occasion; 95 % CI: −0·02; −0·10, 0·05) or subsequent change (0·02; −0·03, 0·06) in BMI. Similarly, BMI at age 1 year did not predict eating frequency at 2 years of age (difference in eating frequency per additional BMI Z-score unit; 95 % CI: −0·03; −0·19, 0·13).
Number of eating occasions per day was not associated with BMI in young children in the present study.
The extent to which indices of maternal physiological arousal (skin conductance augmentation) and regulation (vagal withdrawal) while parenting predict infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems directly or indirectly via maternal sensitivity was examined in a sample of 259 mothers and their infants. Two covariates, maternal self-reported emotional risk and Adult Attachment Interview attachment coherence were assessed prenatally. Mothers' physiological arousal and regulation were measured during parenting tasks when infants were 6 months old. Maternal sensitivity was observed during distress-eliciting tasks when infants were 6 and 14 months old, and an average sensitivity score was calculated. Attachment disorganization was observed during the Strange Situation when infants were 14 months old, and mothers reported on infants' behavior problems when infants were 27 months old. Over and above covariates, mothers' arousal and regulation while parenting interacted to predict infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems such that maternal arousal was associated with higher attachment disorganization and behavior problems when maternal regulation was low but not when maternal regulation was high. This effect was direct and not explained by maternal sensitivity. The results suggest that maternal physiological dysregulation while parenting places infants at risk for psychopathology.
Recent studies suggest that sand can serve as a vehicle for exposure of humans to pathogens at beach sites, resulting in increased health risks. Sampling for microorganisms in sand should therefore be considered for inclusion in regulatory programmes aimed at protecting recreational beach users from infectious disease. Here, we review the literature on pathogen levels in beach sand, and their potential for affecting human health. In an effort to provide specific recommendations for sand sampling programmes, we outline published guidelines for beach monitoring programmes, which are currently focused exclusively on measuring microbial levels in water. We also provide background on spatial distribution and temporal characteristics of microbes in sand, as these factors influence sampling programmes. First steps toward establishing a sand sampling programme include identifying appropriate beach sites and use of initial sanitary assessments to refine site selection. A tiered approach is recommended for monitoring. This approach would include the analysis of samples from many sites for faecal indicator organisms and other conventional analytes, while testing for specific pathogens and unconventional indicators is reserved for high-risk sites. Given the diversity of microbes found in sand, studies are urgently needed to identify the most significant aetiological agent of disease and to relate microbial measurements in sand to human health risk.
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and isotope dilution technique have been used as reference methods to validate the estimates of body composition by simple field techniques; however, very few studies have compared these two methods. We compared the estimates of body composition by DXA and isotope dilution (18O) technique in apparently healthy Indian men and women (aged 19–70 years, n 152, 48 % men) with a wide range of BMI (14–40 kg/m2). Isotopic enrichment was assessed by isotope ratio mass spectroscopy. The agreement between the estimates of body composition measured by the two techniques was assessed by the Bland–Altman method. The mean age and BMI were 37 (sd 15) years and 23·3 (sd 5·1) kg/m2, respectively, for men and 37 (sd 14) years and 24·1 (sd 5·8) kg/m2, respectively, for women. The estimates of fat-free mass were higher by about 7 (95 % CI 6, 9) %, those of fat mass were lower by about 21 (95 % CI − 18, − 23) %, and those of body fat percentage (BF%) were lower by about 7·4 (95 % CI − 8·2, − 6·6) % as obtained by DXA compared with the isotope dilution technique. The Bland–Altman analysis showed wide limits of agreement that indicated poor agreement between the methods. The bias in the estimates of BF% was higher at the lower values of BF%. Thus, the two commonly used reference methods showed substantial differences in the estimates of body composition with wide limits of agreement. As the estimates of body composition are method-dependent, the two methods cannot be used interchangeably.
To assess the cardiac catheterisation findings of all children in whom cardiac magnetic resonance imaging found great artery stenosis.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of all 45 consecutive children with congenital cardiac disease who were undergoing cardiac catheterisation for intervention on cardiac magnetic resonance-defined great vessel stenosis, between January, 2006 and August, 2008.
Following cardiac magnetic resonance, 60 significant great vessel stenoses were identified and referred to cardiac catheterisation for intervention. All patients were catheterised within a median and interquartile range of 84 and 4–149 days, respectively, of cardiac magnetic resonance. At cardiac catheterisation, the children were aged 11.5 years – with an interquartile range of 3.8–16.9 years – and weighed 34 kilograms – with an interquartile range of 15–56 kilograms. Comparing cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac catheterisation findings, 53 (88%) findings were concordant and seven were discordant. In six of seven (86%) discordant observations, cardiac magnetic resonance defined moderate–severe great vessel stenosis – involving three branch pulmonary arteries and three aortas. This was not confirmed by cardiac catheterisation, which revealed mild stenoses and haemodynamic gradients insufficient for intervention. In one patient, a mild, proximal right pulmonary artery narrowing was found at cardiac catheterisation, which was not mentioned in the cardiac magnetic resonance report. There was no difference between discordant and concordant groups on the basis of patient age, weight, interval between cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac catheterisation, or type of lesion.
Invasive assessment confirmed cardiac magnetic resonance-diagnosed great vessel stenosis in the majority of this cohort. The predominant discordant finding was lower catherisation gradient than predicted by morphologic and functional cardiac magnetic resonance assessment. Flow volume diversion – for example, unilateral pulmonary artery stenosis – and anaesthetic effects may account for some differences. Prospective refinement of cardiac magnetic resonance and interventional data may further improve the validity of non-invasive imaging thresholds for intervention.
This study describes single-unit experience and explores risk stratification, with protocolised inter-stage cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Survival was retrospectively analysed among the cohort of locally followed survivors of Norwood Stage I procedure, who underwent magnetic resonance imaging under general anaesthesia from 2003 to 2008. This included 32 patients: 17 with Sano conduit and 15 with arterio-pulmonary shunt. The median (inter-quartile range) age and weight at scan were 3.1 (2.6–4.6) months and 5.0 (4.5–5.3) kilograms, respectively. Using morphologic definitions, the median coarctation index was 0.71 (0.57–0.83). The degree of proximal right and left pulmonary artery narrowing was 25% (14–44%) and 25% (11–50%), respectively. The median right ventricular ejection fraction was 54% (48–59%). The ejection fraction was not related to the coarctation index or to pulmonary artery narrowing. Patients were followed up for a median of 19.2 (10.8–46.0) months, during which 13 (41%) had an intervention in addition to routine Norwood Stage II surgery and seven died. Risk of death was related to reduced right ventricular ejection fraction, with a hazard ratio of 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.85–0.98, p = 0.02), and the cumulative number of focal stenoses of neo-aortic arch and pulmonary arteries (hazard ratio 2.71, 95% confidence interval 1.14–6.44, p = 0.02). Conclusions: In addition to comprehensive three-dimensional morphologic imaging, inter-stage cardiac magnetic resonance imaging provides a ventricular functional index that may predict outcome in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Measures to preserve right ventricular systolic function and relieve stenoses are paramount within the complex management strategies for these patients.
Current experimental configurations for MW PECVD diamond growth do not allow simple up-scaling towards large areas, which is essential for microelectronic industries and other applications. Another important issue is the reduction of the substrate temperature during diamond growth to enhance the compatibility with wafer processing technologies. Such advantages are provided by MW-linear antenna (LA) plasma applicators, allowing a scalable concept for diamond growing plasmas. In the present work we introduce a novel construction of LA MW applicators designed for nanodiamond growth by using plasmas ranging from continuous wave (CW) to high repetition rates pulsed modes (up to 20 kHz) which advantages are discussed in detail.
The presented work aims for the development of optically-traceable intracellular nanodiamond sensors, where photoluminescence can be changed by biomolecular attachment/delivery event. High biocompatibility, small size and stable luminescence from its color centers, makes nanodiamond (ND) particles an attractive alternative to molecular dyes for drug-delivery and cell-imaging applications. In our work we study how the surface modification of ND can change ND luminescence spectra. This method can be used as a novel detection tool for remote monitoring of chemical processes in biological systems. We discuss photoluminescence (PL) spectra of oxidized and hydrogenated ND and a single crystal diamond, containing engineered NV centers. The hydrogenation of ND leads to quenching of NV- related luminescence and a PL shift due to changing of occupation from NV- to NV0 states. We model this effect using electrical potential changes at the diamond surface.
We present a method for simulation of crystal growth using completely facetted interfaces and the definition of curvature appropriate to such interfaces. The representation of these surfaces, as facets with fixed normal directions, variable distances, and semi-fixed adjacencies, is quite different from that in other methods. It is flexible as to possible growth rules, it appears to avoid the problems involved in measuring curvature and in detecting and making topological changes, and it runs relatively fast. We expect it to be a valid method to approximate growth with any isotropie or anisotropie surface energy and kinetics. The use of the method is demonstrated in dendritic crystal growth and in Ostwald ripening.
Control of particle-particle spacing is a key determinant of optical, electronic, and magnetic properties of nanocomposite materials. We have used poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers to assemble carboxylic acid-functionalized mixed monolayer protected clusters (MMPCs) through acid/base chemistry between particle and polymer. IR spectroscopy and selective dendrimer staining, observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), establish that the PAMAM dendrimers are the mortar in the assembly and act to space the MMPCs in the resulting aggregates. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was then used to establish average interparti cle distances; five generations of PAMAM dendrimer (0, 1, 2, 4, 6) were investigated and monotonic increase in interparticle spacing from 4.1 nm to 6.1 nm was observed.
Initial studies involving the application of this methodology to control the magnetic properties of 3-iron oxide nanoparticles have been completed. γ-Iron oxide nanoparticles (6.5 nm in diameter) have been assembled with PAMAM dendrimers generations 2.5, 4.5, and 6.5. The resulting aggregates were characterized with SAXS and magnetization obtained on a super conducting quantum interference devise (SQUID). An observed correlation between the blocking temperature (TB) and the average interparticle spacing suggests that our methodology could be used to tailor the magnetic profile of the nanoparticles.
We have investigated the crystallization behavior of phase change materials as a function of their thickness. Thin films of variable thickness between 1 and 50nm of the phase change materials Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST), N-doped GST (N-GST), Ge15Sb85 (GeSb), Sb2Te, and Ag and In doped Sb2Te (AIST) were deposited by magnetron sputtering, and capped in situ by a 10nm thick Al2O3 film to prevent oxidation. The crystallization behavior of the films was studied using time-resolved X-ray diffraction. For each material we observed a constant crystallization temperature Tx that was comparable to bulk values for films thicker than 10 nm, and an increased Tx when the film thickness was reduced below 10 nm. The thinnest films that showed XRD peaks were 2 nm for GST and N-GST, 1.5 nm for Sb2Te and AgIn-Sb2Te, and 1.3 nm for GeSb. The observed increase in the phase transition temperature with reduced film thickness and the fact that very thin films still show clear phase change properties are indications that Phase Change Random Access Memory technology can be scaled down to several future technology nodes.