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This article examines representations of credit instruments in two popular antebellum fictions: Asa Greene's The Perils of Pearl Street and Charles Frederick Briggs's The Adventures of Harry Franco. Drawing on a range of business histories it describes the operation of promissory notes and bills of exchange in the cotton-for-credit system, focussing on the “principle of deferral” and the ways in which these instruments attempted to solve the problem of time in long-distance exchange. By establishing concrete connections between characters, times, and places, these fictions demystify the antebellum financial system, revealing an economy based on new forms of social interdependence.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Our research hypothesis is that resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) data can be used to identify regions of the brain which are associated with cognitive decline in patients – thereby providing a tool by which to characterize AD progression in patients. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) to analyze Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) questionnaire scores from 14 patients diagnosed with AD at two measurement occasions. RsfMRI data was available at the first of these occasions for these patients. These rsfMRI data were summarized into 264 node-based graph theory measures of clustering coefficient and eigenvector centrality. To address our research hypothesis, we modeled changes in patient MMSE scores over time as a function of these rsfMRI data, controlling for relevant confounding factors. This model accounted for the high-dimensionality of our predictor data, the longitudinal nature of the outcome, and our desire to identify a subset of regions in the brain most associated with the MMSE outcome. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The use of either the clustering coefficient or eigenvector centrality rsfMRI predictors in modeling MMSE scores for patients over time resulted in the identification of different subsets of brain regions associated with cognitive decline. This suggests that these predictors capture different information on patient propensity for cognitive decline. Further work is warranted to validate these results on a larger sample of ADNI patients. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We conclude that different rsfMRI graph theory measures capture different aspects of cognitive function and decline in patients, which could be a future consideration in clinical practice.
This paper considers the timing and mechanisms of deforestation in the Western Isles of Scotland, focusing in particular on the landscape around the Calanais stone circles, one of the best preserved late Neolithic/early Bronze Age monumental landscapes in north-west Europe. We present new archaeological and palaeoenvironmental evidence from a soil and peat sequence at the site of Aird Calanais, which spans the main period of use of the Calanais circles. We then draw on a new synthesis of archaeobotanical and palynological evidence from across the Western Isles and a review of comparable data from the wider North Atlantic zone, before assessing the role of early farming communities in clearing the wooded landscapes of the region. Pollen and radiocarbon dating at the site of Aird Calanais reveal that a layer of birch branches, dating to the late Neolithic (2912–2881 cal bc), was contemporaneous with a decline in woodland at the site, as well as with the major phase of Neolithic activity at the Calanais stone circle complex. However, our synthesis of the pollen and plant macrofossil evidence from across the Western Isles suggests that the picture across these islands was altogether more complex: woodlands declined both before, as well as during, the Neolithic and deciduous woodlands remained sufficiently abundant for Neolithic fuel procurement. Finally, we consider the implications of the results for understanding the interactions between first farmers and woodlands in the wider North Atlantic region.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this project is the application of complex fusion models, which combine observed and modeled data, to areas with sparse monitoring networks with multiple chemical components is under-developed. Such models could provide improved accuracy and coverage for air quality measurement predictions, an area greatly limited by the amount of missing data. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This project focuses on the development of methods for improved estimation of pollutant concentrations when only sparse monitor networks are found. Sparse monitoring networks are defined as areas where fewer than three criteria air pollutants (based on EPA standards) are monitored. Particularly, a multivariate air pollutant statistical model to predict spatio-temporally resolved concentration fields for multiple pollutants simultaneously is developed and evaluated. The multivariate predictions allow monitored pollutants to inform the prediction of nonmonitored pollutants in sparse networks. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Daily, ZIP code level pollutant concentration estimates will be provided for 8 pollutants across South Carolina, and goodness of fit metrics for model variants and previously established methods will be compared. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These methods utilize only widely available data resources, meaning that the improved predictive accuracy of sparsely monitored pollutant concentrations can benefit future studies in any US area by improving estimation of health effects and saving resources needed for supplemental air pollutant monitoring campaigns. Our method for estimation attempts to improve predictive accuracy and data availability for sparsely monitored pollutants and areas.
We present a description of the pathlength compensation system used in the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer, and report on the method of fringe tracking that is being implemented. The components of this system are discussed, including the PAPA camera used to detect chromatic fringes, the fringe tracking servo, the delay line and its control.
The ANTARES accelerator mass spectrometry facility at Lucas Heights Research Laboratory is operational and AMS measurements of 14C, 26Al and 36Cl are being carried out routinely. Measurement of 129I recently commenced and capabilities for other long-lived radioisotopes such as 10Be are being established. The overall aim of the facility is to develop advanced programs in Quaternary science, global climate change, biomedicine and nuclear safeguards.
Finch trichomonosis is an emerging infectious disease affecting European passerines caused by a clonal strain of Trichomonas gallinae. Migrating chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) were proposed as the likely vector of parasite spread from Great Britain to Fennoscandia. To test for such parasite carriage, we screened samples of oesophagus/crop from 275 Apodiform, Passeriform and Piciform birds (40 species) which had no macroscopic evidence of trichomonosis (i.e. necrotic ingluvitis). These birds were found dead following the emergence of trichomonosis in Great Britain, 2009–2012, and were examined post-mortem. Polymerase chain reactions were used to detect (ITS1/5·8S rRNA/ITS2 region and single subunit rRNA gene) and to subtype (Fe-hydrogenase gene) T. gallinae. Trichomonas gallinae was detected in six finches [three chaffinches, two greenfinches (Chloris chloris) and a bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula)]. Sequence data had 100% identity to the European finch epidemic A1 strain for each species. While these results are consistent with finches being vectors of T. gallinae, alternative explanations include the presence of incubating or resolved T. gallinae infections. The inclusion of histopathological examination would help elucidate the significance of T. gallinae infection in the absence of macroscopic lesions.
This study investigates the microclimate and hydrology of debris-laden ice surfaces in the Taylor Valley, Antarctica, in early summer, focusing on the onset of melt. Measurements of energy and mass fluxes were made on an outwash fan and in moraines near the terminus of Taylor Glacier. The surface microclimate was strongly controlled by absorbed solar radiation, with a low albedo of 0.17. Seasonal warming of the substrate led to an abrupt shift in thermal and hydrological patterns as temperatures exceeded freezing point. Within a week the Bowen ratio switched from 2.05 to 0.48 and mass losses to the atmosphere increased four-fold from 0.39 to 1.6 mm d-1. Melt onset also produced complex ground temperature patterns with strong diurnal damping below the freezing front. These patterns were caused by phase changes in the freezing front, coupled with an abundant water supply from local runoff. Of secondary importance to the surface energy balance and mass fluxes was the effect of local winds on boundary layer characteristics. This resulted in larger mass losses during the more turbulent, warmer and drier down-valley flows.
Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan Trichomonas gallinae, is a recently emerged infectious disease of British passerines. The aetiological agent, a clonal epidemic strain of the parasite, has caused unprecedented finch mortality and population-level declines in Britain and has since spread to continental Europe. To better understand the potential origin of this epidemic and to further investigate its host range, T. gallinae DNA extracts were collected from parasite culture and tissue samples from a range of avian species in Britain. Sequence typing at the ITS1/5.8S rRNA/ITS2 region resolved three distinct ITS region types circulating in free-ranging British birds. Subtyping by sequence analyses at the Fe-hydrogenase gene demonstrated further strain variation within these ITS region types. The UK finch epidemic strain was preponderant amongst columbids sampled, however, wide strain diversity was encountered in isolates from a relatively small number of pigeons, suggesting further strains present in columbid populations across the UK are yet to be identified. Fe-hydrogenase gene sequence data in isolates from birds of prey with disease were predominantly identical to the UK finch epidemic strain, demonstrating its presence as a virulent strain in UK birds of prey since at least 2009.
This article examines how the foreclosure crisis has been represented in a range of narrative genres: the reportage of Paul Reyes's Exiles in Eden: Life among the Ruins of Florida's Great Recession (2010), Michael Moore's documentary film Capitalism: A Love Story (2009), and Paul Auster's novel Sunset Park (2010).These narratives attempt to contextualize the human beings caught in the center of the subprime mortgage storm, but in the process each of them runs up against an opacity or obscurity, a crisis of representation. The article argues that underlying the financial crisis is an inability to recognize and comprehend deeply embedded structures of inequality, a failure common to both the financial system and the wider culture. Drawing on recent accounts of the techniques of credit scoring and mortgage securitization in the disciplines of business history, accounting, financial management, and human geography, the article concludes that subprime mortgage lending involved social relations of supremacy and subordination, as well as representational strategies which identified individuals solely in terms of credit risk, while failing to grasp the conditions of poverty and disadvantage which constituted them as a class.
Organic cropping systems that utilize winter grown cereal–legume cover crop mixtures can increase plant available nitrogen (N) to a subsequent cash crop, but the rate of N release is uncertain due to variations in residue composition and environmental conditions. A study was conducted to evaluate N availability from rye (Secale cereale L.)–hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) cover crop mixtures and to measure the response of organically grown sweet corn (Zea mays L.) to N provided by cover crop mixtures. Nitrogen availability from pure rye, pure hairy vetch, and rye–vetch mixtures was estimated using laboratory incubation with controlled temperature and soil moisture. Sweet corn N response was determined in a 2-year field experiment in western Washington with three cover crop treatments as main plots (50:50 rye–vetch seed mixture planted mid September, planted early October, and none) and four feather meal N rates as subplots (0, 56, 112 and 168 kg available N ha−1). Pure hairy vetch and a 75% rye–25% hairy vetch biomass mixture (R75V25) released similar amounts of N over 70 days in the laboratory incubation. But, the initial release of N from the (R75V25) treatment was nearly 70% lower, which may result in N release that is better timed with crop uptake. Cover crops in the field were dominated by rye and contained 34–76 kg ha−1 total N with C:N ranging from 18 to 27. Although time of planting and management of cover crop quality improved N uptake in sweet corn, cover crops provided only supplemental plant available N in this system.