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Appropriateness of transmission-based precautions after positive result for a non-SARS-CoV-2 virus was evaluated. Most patients (77.2%) lacked appropriate precautions within 3 hours of virus detection; 36.9% remained without appropriate precautions during their stay. With recent cessation of universal masking, adherence to infection control best practices is needed to optimize safety.
Compare outcomes of patients receiving high-dose oral beta-lactam versus standard oral therapy for Enterobacterales bacteremia from a urinary tract infection (UTI).
Retrospective, multicenter, observational cohort.
Three Michigan community teaching hospitals.
Adult patients admitted between February 1, 2020, and October 1, 2022, with gram-negative bacteremia from a urinary source were evaluated. Patients receiving active empiric intravenous (IV) antibiotics and transitioned to appropriately dosed oral cephalexin, amoxicillin, fluoroquinolone (FQ), or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) were included. Patients receiving less than 72 hours of oral therapy, diagnosed with renal abscess, lobar nephronia, or expired during admission were excluded.
Standard oral therapy was defined as FQ or TMP/SMX. The primary outcome compared the composite of recurrent bacteremia or mortality within 30 days of therapy between groups. Secondary outcomes compared recurrent UTI, emergency department or hospital readmission, and Clostridioides difficile within 30 days.
194 patients were included (beta-lactam, n = 75 vs standard therapy, n =119). Patients in both groups were treated for a median of 11 days, with 4 days IV and 7 days oral therapy. There was no difference in the primary outcome between groups (beta-lactam 1.3% vs standard therapy 1.7%, OR 1.27 [95% CI 0.11–14.2]). No patients experienced C. difficile in either group (p = 1.0). Infectious disease consultation was independently associated with standard therapy prescribing (OR 4.4 [95% CI 2.24–8.26]).
High-dose oral beta-lactams were as safe and effective as oral FQ or TMP/SMX for the treatment of bacteremia from a urinary source. Most patients received 8–10 days of therapy in both groups.
Current guidelines do not address a recommended duration of parenteral therapy for uncomplicated urinary tract infection (uUTI) treatment in the inpatient setting. We compared a 3-day course of ceftriaxone with longer antibiotic durations for inpatients with a uUTI. Our findings indicate that a 3-day course of ceftriaxone was as efficacious as longer antibiotic courses.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Medical residents are an important group for antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) to target with interventions aimed at improving antibiotic prescribing. In this study, we compared antimicrobial prescribing practices of 2 academic medical teams receiving different ASP training approaches along with a hospitalist control group.
Retrospective cohort study comparing guideline-concordant antibiotic prescribing for 3 common infections among a family medicine (FM) resident service, an internal medicine (IM) resident service, and hospitalists.
Community teaching hospital.
Adult patients admitted between July 1, 2016, and June 30, 2017, with a discharge diagnosis of pneumonia, cellulitis, and urinary tract infections were reviewed.
All 3 medical teams received identical baseline ASP education and daily antibiotic prescribing audit with feedback via clinical pharmacists. The FM resident service received an additional layer of targeted ASP intervention that included biweekly stewardship-focused rounds with an ASP physician and clinical pharmacist leadership. Guideline-concordant prescribing was assessed based on the institution’s ASP guidelines.
Of 1,572 patients, 295 (18.8%) were eligible for inclusion (FM, 96; IM, 69; hospitalist, 130). The percentage of patients receiving guideline-concordant antibiotic selection empirically was similar between groups for all diagnoses (FM, 87.5%; IM, 87%; hospitalist, 83.8%; P = .702). No differences were observed in appropriate definitive antibiotic selection among groups (FM, 92.4%; IM, 89.1%; hospitalist, 89.9%; P = .746). The FM resident service was more likely to prescribe a guideline-concordant duration of therapy across all diagnoses (FM, 74%; IM, 56.5%; hospitalist, 44.6%; P < .001).
Adding dedicated stewardship-focused rounds into the graduate medical curriculum demonstrated increased guideline adherence specifically to duration of therapy recommendations.
Breakthrough Listen is a 10-yr initiative to search for signatures of technologies created by extraterrestrial civilisations at radio and optical wavelengths. Here, we detail the digital data recording system deployed for Breakthrough Listen observations at the 64-m aperture CSIRO Parkes Telescope in New South Wales, Australia. The recording system currently implements two modes: a dual-polarisation, 1.125-GHz bandwidth mode for single-beam observations, and a 26-input, 308-MHz bandwidth mode for the 21-cm multibeam receiver. The system is also designed to support a 3-GHz single-beam mode for the forthcoming Parkes ultra-wideband feed. In this paper, we present details of the system architecture, provide an overview of hardware and software, and present initial performance results.