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To examine differences in surgical practices between salaried and fee-for-service (FFS) surgeons for two common degenerative spine conditions. Surgeons may offer different treatments for similar conditions on the basis of their compensation mechanism.
The study assessed the practices of 63 spine surgeons across eight Canadian provinces (39 FFS surgeons and 24 salaried) who performed surgery for two lumbar conditions: stable spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis. The study included a multicenter, ambispective review of consecutive spine surgery patients enrolled in the Canadian Spine Outcomes and Research Network registry between October 2012 and July 2018. The primary outcome was the difference in type of procedures performed between the two groups. Secondary study variables included surgical characteristics, baseline patient factors, and patient-reported outcome.
For stable spinal stenosis (n = 2234), salaried surgeons performed statistically fewer uninstrumented fusion (p < 0.05) than FFS surgeons. For degenerative spondylolisthesis (n = 1292), salaried surgeons performed significantly more instrumentation plus interbody fusions (p < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in patient-reported outcomes between the two groups.
Surgeon compensation was associated with different approaches to stable lumbar spinal stenosis and degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. Salaried surgeons chose a more conservative approach to spinal stenosis and a more aggressive approach to degenerative spondylolisthesis, which highlights that remuneration is likely a minor determinant in the differences in practice of spinal surgery in Canada. Further research is needed to further elucidate which variables, other than patient demographics and financial incentives, influence surgical decision-making.
‘Mineral evolution’ has attracted much attention in the last decade as a counterpart of the long-established biological concept, but is there a corresponding ‘mineral extinction’? We present new geochronological data from uranium-bearing secondary minerals and show that they are relatively recent, irrespective of the age of their primary uranium sources. The secondary species that make up much of the diversity of minerals appear to be ephemeral, and many may have vanished from the geological record without trace. Nevertheless, an ‘extinct’ mineral species can recur when physiochemical conditions are appropriate. This reversibility of ‘extinction’ highlights the limitations of the ‘evolution’ analogy. Mineral occurrence may be time-dependent but does not show the unique contingency between precursor and successor species that is characteristic of biological evolution.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
The crystal structure of burckhardite from the type locality, Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico, has been refined to R1 = 0.0362 and wR2 = 0.0370 for 215 reflections with I > 2σ(I). Burckhardtite is trigonal, space group P1m, with the unit-cell parameters a = 5.2566(5) Å , c = 13.0221(10) Å , V = 311.62(5) Å3 and Z = 1 for the ideal formula unit Pb2(Fe3+Te6+)[AlSi3O8]O6. There is no long-range order of (Fe3+, Te6+) or (Al3+, Si4+). New microprobe data were used to estimate site scattering factors, and Raman spectroscopic data showed no evidence of O–H stretching bands. Burckhardtite is not closely related to the micas, as supposed previously, but is a double-sheet silicate in which the aluminosilicate anion resembles that of minerals such as cymrite and kampfite. The [(Fe3+Te6+)O6]3– part of the structure is not bonded directly to the aluminosilicate layer, but forms a discrete anionic phyllotellurate layer that alternates with the [AlSi3O8]– double sheets. Similar phyllotellurate layers are known from several synthetic phases. In burckhardtite, Pb2+ cations intercalate between phyllosilicate and phyllotellurate layers, forming a Pb2[FeTeO6] module that is topologically similar to a slab of the structure of rosiaite, Pb[Sb2O6]. The crystal symmetry, structure, classification as a double-sheet silicate and chemical formula, including the determination of the 6+ valence of Te and absence of essential H2O, are all new findings for the mineral.
The crystal structure of ceruleite, CuAl4[AsO4]2(OH)8(H2O)4, has been solved to an R1 of 0.0307, using the world's largest crystals from the Cap Garonne mine, France. Ceruleite crystallizes in space group P21/n, with the unit cell a = 7.2000(14), b = 11.345(2), c = 9.856(2) Å, β = 105.57(3)°, V = 775.6(3) Å3 and Z = 1. Ceruleite has a unique structure that consists of Al(O,OH)6 octahedra that are sharing edges to form rhombus-shaped tetramers. AsO4 tetrahedra share two corners with one such rhombus and the other two corners with each of two other rhombi, linking them into a very open mesoporous framework. Cu(OH)2(H2O)2 squares lie in the channels and link Al4 rhombi along || b. H2O molecules are also located in the channels.
Four specimens of the roméite-group minerals oxyplumboroméite and fluorcalcioroméite from the Långban Mn-Fe deposit in Central Sweden were structurally and chemically characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The data obtained and those on additional roméite samples from literature show that the main structural variations within the roméite group are related to variations in the content of Pb2+, which is incorporated into the roméite structure via the substitution Pb2+→A2+ where A2+ = Ca, Mn and Sr. Additionally, the cation occupancy at the six-fold coordinated B site, which is associated with the heterovalent substitution BFe3+ + Y☐→BSb5++YO2-, can strongly affect structural parameters.
Chemical formulae of the roméite minerals group are discussed. According to crystal-chemical information, the species associated with the name ‘kenoplumboroméite’, hydroxycalcioroméite and fluorcalcioroméite most closely approximate end-member compositions Pb2(SbFe3+)O6☐, Ca2(Sb5+Ti) O6(OH) and (CaNa)Sb2O6F, respectively. However, in accord with pyrochlore nomenclature rules, their names correspond to multiple end-members and are best described by the general formulae: (Pb,#)2(Sb,#)2O6☐, (Ca,#)2(Sb,#)2O6(OH) and (Ca,#)Sb2(O,#)6F, where ‘#’ indicates an unspecified charge-balancing chemical substituent, including vacancies.
When crustal abundance (A, measured in atomic parts per million) of a chemical element is plotted vs. number of mineral species in which that element is an essential constituent (S), a significantly positive correlation is obtained, but with considerable scatter. Repeated exclusion of outliers at the 90% confidence level and re-fitting leads, after the sixth iteration, to a steady state in which 40 of the 70 elements initially considered define a trend with log S = 1.828 + 0.255 log a (r = 0.96), significantly steeper than the original. Three other methods for reducing the effect of outliers independently reproduce this steeper trend. The 'diversity index' D of an element is defined as the ratio of observed mineral species to those predicted from this trend. D separates elements into three groups. More than half of the elements (40 of 70) have D = 0.5–2.0. Apart from these 'typical' elements, a group of 15 elements (Sc, Cr, Ga, Br, Rb, In, Cs, La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Yb, Hf, Re and Th) form few species of their own due to being dispersed as minor solid solution constituents, and a hitherto unrecognized group of 15 elements are essential components in unusually large numbers of minerals. The anomalously diverse group consists of H, S, Cu, As, Se, Pd, Ag, Sb, Te, Pt, Au, Hg, Pb, Bi and U, with Te and Bi by far the most mineralogically diverse elements (D = 22 and 19, respectively). Possible causes and inhibitors of diversity are discussed, with reference to atomic size, electronegativity and Pearson softness, and particularly outer electronic configurations that result in distinctive stereochemistry. The principal factors encouraging mineral diversity are: (1) Particular outer electronic configurations that lead to a preference for unique coordination geometries, enhancing an element's ability to form distinctive chemical compounds and decreasing its ability to participate in solid solutions. This is particularly noteworthy for elements possessing geometrically flexible 'lone-pair cations' with an s2 outer electronic configuration. (2) Siderophilic or chalcophilic geochemical behaviour and intermediate electronegativity, allowing elements to form minerals that are not oxycompounds or halides. (3) Access to a wide range of oxidation states. The most diverse elements can occur as anions, native elements and in more than one cationic valence state.
An unusually diverse array of 25 secondary Te oxysalt minerals has been documented from Otto Mountain, California, and 18 of these from the Bird Nest drift sublocality. A paragenetic sequence for these minerals is proposed, using observed overgrowth relationships plus spatial association data and data from other localities. Apart from Te and O, the components Pb, Cu and H are essential in the majority of the minerals. The atomic Cu/Te ratio decreases through the paragenetic sequence. This, and the occurrence of minerals with additional components such as Cl–, CO32–, SO42– and Fe3+ at an intermediate stage, suggests nonmonotonic evolution of the parent fluids, reflecting differing access to or spatial distribution of various components. For the minerals with known crystal structures, two alternative 'structural units' were identified, one consisting only of the Te4+ or Te6+ oxyanion, while the other also included small, strongly-bound cations such as Cu2+. The degree of polymerization for the Te oxyanion correlated with the paragenetic sequence: the monomeric tellurate anions of early minerals were replaced progressively by dimers, chains and sheet structures, which may relate to a decreasing abundance of the 'network modifying' Cu2+ cation, analogous to Bowen's discontinuous reaction series in igneous rock-forming silicates. No relationship was seen between paragenetic order and the larger type of structural unit, or structural complexity as defined by information content. This contrasts with results in the literature for evaporite sulfates and pegmatite phosphates. While structure–paragenesis relationships may be widespread, the exact nature of such relationships may be different for different chemical systems and different paragenetic environments.
Two samples of hydrotalcite, probably worked on by Carl Christian Hochstetter, have been discovered in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin and given neotype status by the IMA CNMNC (proposal 15-J). The two samples from Snarum, Norway, have been reanalysed and give Mg5.84Al2.07Fe0.09(OH)16(CO3)1.08·4H2O and Mg5.75Al2.21Fe0.04(OH)16(CO3)1.12·4H2O. Both samples have a mix of the two polytypes 3R/2H in the ratio of 69.2/30.8 and 69.5/30.5%. A discussion of hydrotalcite and hydrotalcite-like phase occurrences in the literature is also presented.
“Envelope crystals” collected during The Great Barrier Reef Expedition in May 1929 have been studied using low-temperature synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystals are shown to be weddellite, with the largest content of zeolitic water reported to date. A new H2O site has been located within the crystal structure. Study of the crystals show that the end-member formula for weddellite should be reported as CaC2O4·(2.5 – x)H2O, where 0≤x≤ 0.25, instead of CaC2O4·(2H2O or CaC2O4·(2 + x )H2O. This is also the first report of weddellite occurring in a coral reef.
A crystallographic and chemical study of two 'elsmoreite' samples (previously described as 'ferritungstite') from the Hemerdon mine (now known as the Drakelands mine), Devon, United Kingdom has shown them to be two different polytypes of hydrokenoelsmoreite. Hydrokenoelsmoreite-3C(HKE-3C) crystallizes in space group , with the unit-cell parameter a = 10.3065(3) Å. Hydrokenoelsmoreite-6R (HKE-6R) crystallizes in space group , with the unit-cell parameters a = 7.2882(2) Å and c = 35.7056(14)Å. Chemical analyses showed that both polytypes have Na and Fe/Al substitution giving the formulae: (Na0.28Ca0.04K0.02(H2O)0.20⁏1.46)∑2.00(W1.47Fe3+0.32Al0.21As5+0.01)∑2.00[O4.79(OH)1.21]∑6.00·(H2O)(3C) and (Na0.24Ca0.04K0.03(H2O)0.63⁏1.06)∑2.00(W1.42Fe3+0.49Al0.08As5+0.01)∑2.00[O4.65(OH)1.35]∑6.00·(H2O)(6R). The doubling of the unit cell in the 6R phase is due to ordering of Na and ( ,H2O) in the A site; no long-range ordering is observed between W and Fe/Al in the B site.
We report the single-crystal average structure of cyanotrichite, Cu4Al2[SO4](OH)12(H2O)2, from the Maid of Sunshine mine, Arizona, USA. Cyanotrichite crystallizes in space group C2/m, with the unit-cell parameters a = 12.625(3), b = 2.8950(6), c = 10.153(2) Å and β = 92.17(3)o. All non-hydrogen atoms were located and refined to R1 = 0.0394 for all 584 observed reflections [Fo > 4σFo] and 0.0424 for all 622 unique reflections. The cyanotrichite structure consists of a principal building unit of a three-wide [Cu2Al(OH)6] ribbon of edge-sharing Cu and Al polyhedra || b, similar to that found for camerolaite. The ribbons lie in layers || (001) and between these layers, while SO4 tetrahedra and H2O molecules form rods running || b. A hydrogen-bonding scheme is also proposed.
A sample of cyanotrichite from the Cap Garonne mine, Le Pradet, France, showed a 4b superstructure with the following unit cell: space group P2/m, a = 12.611(2) Å, b = 11.584(16) = 4 × 2.896(4) Å, c = 10.190(1) Å and β = 92.29(6)o. The supercell could not be refined in detail, but nevertheless imposes constraints on the local structure in that while the space-group symmetry prevents full order of SO4 and H2O in the 4b supercell, it requires that the sequence of species along any given rod is [-SO4-SO4-(H2O)2-(H2O)2-] rather than [-SO4-(H2O)2-SO4-(H2O)2-].
Field studies were conducted in 2000 and 2001 to evaluate corn yield-loss predictions generated by WeedSOFT, a computerized weed management decision aid. Conventional tillage practices were used to produce corn in 76-cm rows in Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, and Wisconsin. A total of 21 site-years from these seven states were evaluated in this study. At 4 wk after planting, weed densities and size, crop-growth stage, estimated weed-free yield, and environmental conditions at the time of application were entered into WeedSOFT to generate POST treatments ranked by percent maximum yield (PMY). POST treatments were chosen with yield losses ranging from 0 to 20%. Data were subjected to linear regression analysis by state and pooled over all states to determine the relationship between actual and predicted yield loss. A slope value equal to one implies perfect agreement between actual and predicted yield loss. Slope value estimates for Illinois and Missouri were equal to one. Actual yield losses were higher than the software predicted in Kansas and lower than predicted in Michigan, Nebraska, and Wisconsin. Slope value estimate from a data set containing all site years was equal to one. This research demonstrated that variability in yield-loss predictions occurred at sites that contained a high density of a single weed specie (>100/m2) regardless of its competitive index (CI); at sites with a predominant broadleaf weed with a CI greater than five, such as Palmer amaranth, giant ragweed, common sunflower, and common cocklebur; and at sites that experience moderate to severe drought stress.
Nanomedicine is yielding new and improved treatments and diagnostics for a range of diseases and disorders. Nanomedicine applications incorporate materials and components with nanoscale dimensions (often defined as 1-100 nm, but sometimes defined to include dimensions up to 1000 nm, as discussed further below) where novel physiochemical properties emerge as a result of size-dependent phenomena and high surface-to-mass ratio. Nanotherapeutics and in vivo nanodiagnostics are a subset of nanomedicine products that enter the human body. These include drugs, biological products (biologics), implantable medical devices, and combination products that are designed to function in the body in ways unachievable at larger scales. Nanotherapeutics and in vivo nanodiagnostics incorporate materials that are engineered at the nanoscale to express novel properties that are medicinally useful. These nanomedicine applications can also contain nanomaterials that are biologically active, producing interactions that depend on biological triggers. Examples include nanoscale formulations of insoluble drugs to improve bioavailability and pharmacokinetics, drugs encapsulated in hollow nanoparticles with the ability to target and cross cellular and tissue membranes (including the bloodbrain barrier) and to release their payload at a specific time or location, imaging agents that demonstrate novel optical properties to aid in locating micrometastases, and antimicrobial and drug-eluting components or coatings of implantable medical devices such as stents.
Carbon nanoclusters produced by high-repetition-rate laser ablation of graphite and glassy carbon in Ar exhibits para- and ferromagnetic behaviour at low temperature. The results show that the degree of remanent order is strongly dependent on the magnetic history, i.e. whether the samples were cooled under zero-field or field conditions. Such behaviour is typical for a spin glass structure where the system can exist in many different roughly equivalent spin configurations. The spin-freezing temperature is unusually high (50–300 K) compared with ≤ 15 K for typical spin glasses. The maximum in the zero-field magnetic susceptibility experiments and their field dependence indicate that there is competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange pathways, accounting for the spin glass behavior and/or a low-dimensionality of the system.
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