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Apolipoprotein E (APOE) E4 is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to the consistent association, there is interest as to whether E4 influences the risk of other neurodegenerative diseases. Further, there is a constant search for other genetic biomarkers contributing to these phenotypes, such as microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) haplotypes. Here, participants from the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative were genotyped to investigate whether the APOE E4 allele or MAPT H1 haplotype are associated with five neurodegenerative diseases: (1) AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, (3) frontotemporal dementia (FTD), (4) Parkinson’s disease, and (5) vascular cognitive impairment.
Genotypes were defined for their respective APOE allele and MAPT haplotype calls for each participant, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the associations with the presentations of neurodegenerative diseases.
Our work confirmed the association of the E4 allele with a dose-dependent increased presentation of AD, and an association between the E4 allele alone and MCI; however, the other four diseases were not associated with E4. Further, the APOE E2 allele was associated with decreased presentation of both AD and MCI. No associations were identified between MAPT haplotype and the neurodegenerative disease cohorts; but following subtyping of the FTD cohort, the H1 haplotype was significantly associated with progressive supranuclear palsy.
This is the first study to concurrently analyze the association of APOE isoforms and MAPT haplotypes with five neurodegenerative diseases using consistent enrollment criteria and broad phenotypic analysis.
The rationale for undertaking this study was to investigate how characteristics of population health relate to and impact disaster risk, resilience, vulnerability, impact, and recovery. The multi-disciplinary environment that contextualizes disaster practice can influence determinants of health. Robust health determinants, or lack thereof, may influence the outcomes of disaster events affecting an individual or a community.
To investigate how the social determinants of health inform community perceptions of disaster risk.
Community perception of disaster risk in reference to the social determinants of health was assessed in this study. Individual interviews with participants from a community were conducted, all of whom were permanent community residents. Thematic analysis was conducted using narrative inquiry to gather firsthand insights on their perceptions of how characteristics of population health relate to and impact an individual’s disaster risk.
Analysis demonstrated commonality between interviewees in perceptions of the influence of the social determinants of health on individual disaster risk by determinant type. Interviewees sensed a strong correlation between low community connection and disaster risk vulnerability. Specific populations thought to have low community connection were perceived to be socially isolated, resulting in low knowledge or awareness of the surrounding disaster risks, or how to prepare and respond to disasters. In addition, they had reduced access to communication and support in time of need.
The importance of a strong social community connection was a feature of this research. Further research on how health determinants can enable disaster risk awareness and disaster risk communication is warranted.
This study profiles climate change as an emerging disaster risk in Oceania. The rationale for undertaking this study was to investigate climate change and disaster risk in Oceania. The role of this analysis is to examine what evidence exists to support decision-making and profile the nature, type, and potential human and economic impact of climate change and disaster risk in Oceania.
To evaluate perceptions of climate change and disaster risk in the Oceania region.
Thirty individual interviews with participants from 9 different countries were conducted. All of the participants were engaged in disaster management in the Oceania region as researchers, practitioners in emergency management, disaster health care and policy managers, or academics. Data collection was conducted between April and November 2017. Thematic analysis was conducted using narrative inquiry to gather first-hand insights on their perceptions of current and emerging threats and propose improvements in risk management practice to capture, monitor, and control disaster risk.
Interviewees who viewed climate change as a risk or hazard described a breadth of impacts. Hazards identified included climate variability and climate-related disasters, climate issues in island areas and loss of land mass, trans-nation migration, and increased transportation risk due to rising sea levels. These emerging risks are reflective of both the geographical location of countries in Oceania, where land mass due to rising oceans has been previously reported and climate change-driven migration of island populations.
Climate change was perceived as a significant contemporary and future risk, and as an influencing factor on other risks in the Oceania region.
A 22q11 chromosome deletion is common in patients with tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collaterals. We sought to determine whether 22q11 chromosome deletion is associated with increased postoperative morbidity after unifocalisation surgery.
We included all patients with this diagnosis undergoing primary or revision unifocalisation ± ventricular septal defect closure at our institution from 2008 to 2016, and we excluded patients with unknown 22q11 status. Demographic and surgical data were collected. We compared outcomes between those with 22q11 chromosome deletion and those without using non-parametric analysis.
We included 180 patients, 41% of whom were documented to have a chromosome 22q11 deletion. Complete unifocalisation was performed in all patients, and intracardiac repair was performed with similar frequency regardless of 22q11 chromosome status. Duration of mechanical ventilation was longer in 22q11 deletion patients. This difference remained significant after adjustment for delayed sternal closure and/or intracardiac repair. Duration of ICU stay was longer in patients with 22q11 deletion, although no longer significant when adjusted for delayed sternal closure and intracardiac repair. Finally, length of hospital stay was longer in 22q11-deleted patients, but this difference was not significant on unadjusted or adjusted analysis.
Children with tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collaterals and 22q11 deletion are at risk for greater prolonged mechanical ventilation after unifocalisation surgery. Careful attention should be given to the co-morbidities of this population in the perioperative period to mitigate risks that may complicate the postoperative course.
Patients with tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collaterals are at risk for prolonged hospitalisation after unifocalisation. Feeding problems after congenital heart surgery are associated with longer hospital stay. We sought to determine the impact of baseline, intra-operative, and postoperative factors on the need for feeding tube use at the time of discharge.
We included patients with the aforementioned diagnosis undergoing unifocalisation from ages 3 months to 4 years from 2010 to 2016. We excluded patients with a pre-existing feeding tube. Patients discharged with an enteric tube were included in the feeding tube group. We compared the feeding tube group with the non-feeding-tube group by univariable and multi-variable logistic regression.
Of the 56 patients studied, 41% used tube feeding. Median age and weight z-score were similar in the two groups. A chromosome 22q11 deletion was associated with the need for a feeding tube (22q11 deletion in 39% versus 15%, p=0.05). Median cardiopulmonary bypass time in the feeding tube group was longer (335 versus 244 minutes, p=0.04). Prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation was associated with feeding tube use (48 versus 3%, p=0.001). On multi-variable analysis, prolonged mechanical ventilation was associated with feeding tube use (odds ratio 10.2, 95% confidence intervals 1.6; 63.8).
Among patients with tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collaterals who were feeding by mouth before surgery, prolonged mechanical ventilation after unifocalisation surgery was associated with feeding tube use at discharge. Anticipation of feeding problems in this population and earlier feeding tube placement may reduce hospital length of stay.
Take-home naloxone (THN) reduces deaths from opioid overdose. To increase THN distribution to at-risk emergency department (ED) patients, we explored reasons for patients’ refusing or accepting THN.
In an urban teaching hospital ED, we identified high opioid overdose risk patients according to pre-specified criteria. We offered eligible patients THN and participation in researcher-administered surveys, which inquired about reasons to refuse or accept THN and about THN dispensing location preferences. We analyzed refusal and acceptance reasons in open-ended responses, grouped reasons into categories (absolute versus conditional refusals,) then searched for associations between patient characteristics and reasons.
Of 247 patients offered THN, 193 (78.1%) provided reasons for their decision. Of those included, 69 (35.2%) were female, 91 (47.2%) were under age 40, 61 (31.6%) were homeless, 144 (74.6%) reported injection drug use (IDU), and 131 (67.9%) accepted THN. Of 62 patients refusing THN, 19 (30.7%) felt “not at risk” for overdose, while 28 (45.2%) gave conditional refusal reasons: “too sick,” “in a rush,” or preference to get THN elsewhere. Non-IDU was associated with stating “not at risk,” while IDU, homelessness, and age under 40 were associated with conditional refusals. Among acceptances, 86 (65.7%) mentioned saving others as a reason. Most respondents preferred other dispensing locations beside the ED, whether or not they accepted ED THN.
ED patients refusing THN felt “not at risk” for overdose or felt their ED visit was not the right time or place for THN. Most accepting THN wanted to save others.
On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Corpus Christi, Texas. The ensuing unprecedented flooding throughout the Texas coastal region affected millions of individuals.1 The statewide response in Texas included the sheltering of thousands of individuals at considerable distances from their homes. The Dallas area established large-scale general population sheltering as the number of evacuees to the area began to amass. Historically, the Dallas area is one familiar with “mega-sheltering,” beginning with the response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005.2 Through continued efforts and development, the Dallas area had been readying a plan for the largest general population shelter in Texas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:33–37)