To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
An increasing body of genetic and imaging research shows that it is becoming possible to forecast the onset of major psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia before people become ill with ever improving accuracy. Practical issues such as the optimal combination of clinical and biological variables are being addressed, but the application of predictive algorithms to individuals or in routine clinical settings have yet to be tested. The development of predictive methods in mental health comes with substantial ethical questions, including whether people wish to know their level of risk, as well as individual and societal attitudes to the potential adverse effects of data sharing, early diagnosis and treatment, which so far have been largely ignored. Preliminary data suggests that at least some people think predictive research is valuable and would take part in such studies, and some would welcome knowing the results. Future initiatives should systematically assess opinions and attitudes in conjunction with scientific and technical advances.
Declaration of interest
In the past 3 years, S.M.L. has received personal fees from Otsuaka, Sunovion and Janssen, and research grant support from Janssen and Lundbeck. A.M.M. has received research support from the Sackler Trust, Eli Lilly and Janssen. S.M.L. is part of the PSYSCAN consortium.
Bininj Kunwok (BKw), a language spoken in Northern Australia, restricts the degree of anticipatory nasalization, as suggested by previous aerodynamic and acoustic analyses (Butcher 1999). The current study uses aerodynamic measurements of speech to investigate patterns of nasalization and nasal articulation in Bininj Kunwok to compare with Australian languages more generally. The role of nasal coarticulation in ensuring language compre-hensibility a key question in phonetics research today is explored. Nasal aerodynamics is measured in intervocalic, word-medial nasals in the speech of five female speakers of BKw and data are analyzed using Smoothing Spline Analysis of Variance (SSANOVA) and Functional Data Analysis averaging techniques. Results show that in a VNV sequence there is very little anticipatory vowel nasalization with no restriction on carryover nasalization for a following vowel. The maximum peak nasal flow is delayed until the oral release of a nasal for coronal articulations, indicating a delayed velum opening gesture. Patterns of anticipatory nasalization appears similar to nasal airflow in French non-nasalized vowels in oral vowel plus nasal environments (Delvaux et al. 2008). Findings show that Bininj Kunwok speakers use language specific strategies in order to limit anticipatory nasalization, enhancing place of articulation cues at a site of intonational prominence which also is also the location of the majority of place of articulation contrasts within the language. Patterns of airflow suggest enhancement and coarticulatory resistance in prosodically prominent VN and VNC sequences which we interpret as evidence of speakers maintaining a phonological contrast to enhance place of articulation cues.
Low-mass dwarf irregular galaxies are subject to outflows, in which cosmic rays may play a very important role; they can be traced via their electron component, the cosmic ray electrons (CRe), in the radio continuum as non-thermal synchrotron emission. With the advent of sensitive low-frequency observations, such as with the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR), we can trace CRe far away from star formation sites. Together with GHz-observations, such as with the Very Large Array (VLA), we can study spatially resolved radio continuum spectra at matched angular resolution and sensitivity. Here, we present results from our 6-GHz VLA survey of 40 nearby dwarf galaxies and our LOFAR study of the nearby starburst dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10. We explore the relation of RC emission with star formation tracers and study in IC 10 the nature of a low-frequency radio halo, which we find to be the result of a galactic wind.
The purpose of quantum error correction (QEC) is to preserve a quantum state despite the presence of decoherence. As we see throughout this book, the desired robustness exacts a cost in resources, most commonly the inclusion of redundant qubits. The following are reasonable engineering queries: How much will it cost to provide the desired robustness? For a fixed cost, what is the best performance I can achieve? In this chapter, we present some numerical tools to illuminate these kinds of questions.
To understand the cost/performance trade-off quantitatively, we need a clear measure of performance and a model for permissible operations. With this in mind, we will revisit the concepts of fidelity and quantum operations. As it turns out, this quantitative approach can yield very well structured convex optimization problems. Using powerful numerical tools, we determine optimal encodings and recovery operations. Even if the optimal results are not directly implemented, the optimization tools can provide insight into practical solutions by providing the ultimate performance limits.
Limitation of the independent arbitrary errors model
As pointed out in Chapter 2, our rich history of classical error correction has provided a significant foundation for QEC methods. As such, the initial QEC breakthroughs involved importing classical coding concepts into a framework that made robust quantum codes (such as CSS codes or the stabilizer code formalism). We learned that we could create general purpose codes that made minimal assumptions about the structure of the decoherence process.
Spatiotemporal brain activation profiles were obtained from 27 middle school students experiencing difficulties in reading comprehension as well as word-level skills (RD) and 23 age- and IQ-matched non-reading impaired students during performance of an oral pseudoword reading task using Magnetoencephalography (MEG). Based on their scores on standardized reading fluency tests 1 year later, students with RD who showed significant improvement were classified as Adequate Responders (AR) whereas those not demonstrating such gains were classified as Inadequate Responders (IR). At baseline, activation profiles of the AR group featured increased activity in the left supramarginal and angular gyri, as well as in the superior and middle temporal gyri, bilaterally compared to IR. The degree of activity in these regions was a significant predictor of the amount of subsequent gains in reading fluency. These results extend previous functional brain imaging findings of beginning readers, suggesting that recruitment of brain areas that typically serve as key components of the brain circuit for reading is an important factor in determining response to intervention in older struggling readers. (JINS, 2011, 17, 875–885)
This paper describes the results of two seasons of excavation and associated palaeoenvironmental analyses of a wetland site on Beccles Marshes, Beccles, Suffolk. The site has been identified as a triple post alignment of oak timbers (0.6–2.0 m long), over 100 m in length, and 3–4 m wide, running north-west to south-east towards the River Waveney. It was constructed in a single phase which has been dated dendrochronologically to 75 BC, although discrete brushwood features identified as possible short trackways have been dated by radiocarbon to both before and after the alignment was built. It is unclear if the posts ever supported a superstructure but notches (‘halving lap joints’) in some of the posts appear to have held timbers to support the posts and/or aid in their insertion. In addition, fragments of both Iron Age and Romano-British pottery were recovered. A substantial assemblage of worked wooden remains appears to reflect the construction of the post row itself and perhaps the on-site clearance of floodplain vegetation. This assemblage also contains waste material derived from the reduction splitting of timbers larger than the posts of the alignment, but which have not been recovered from the site. Environmental analyses indicate that the current landscape context of the site with respect to the River Waveney is probably similar to that which pertained in prehistory. The coleoptera (beetle) record illustrates a series of changes in the on-site vegetation in the period before, during and after the main phase of human activity which may be related to a range of factors including floodplain hydrology and anthropogenic utilisation of Beccles Marshes. The possible form and function of the site is discussed in relation to the later prehistoric period in Suffolk.
Introgression of cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), resistance from Sinapis alba L. to susceptible Brassica napus L. (Brassicaceae) has produced genetic lines resistant to the weevil in replicated field trials. In the current study, weevil feeding and oviposition on S. alba and on resistant novel lines developed by crossing S. alba × B. napus were less frequent than on susceptible germplasm. Development times were greater and biomass was less when larvae were reared on resistant lines or S. alba. Oocyte development was faster in post-diapause springtime adult female weevils caged on susceptible plants than in those on a resistant line, S. alba, or an early-season food host, Thlaspi arvense L (Brassicaceae). Our results suggest that antixenosis resistance and antibiosis resistance are expressed by resistant lines. These results and previous chemical analyses of these lines also suggest that resistance is potentially influenced by attractive and (or) feeding-stimulant effects of 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate and antifeedant or toxic effects of 1-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate.
Observations show that magnetic fields in the interstellar medium (ISM) often do not respond to increases in gas density as would be naively expected for a frozen-in field. This may suggest that the magnetic field in the diffuse gas becomes detached from dense clouds as they form. We have investigated this possibility using theoretical estimates, a simple magneto-hydrodynamic model of a flow without mass conservation and numerical simulations of a thermally unstable flow. Our results show that significant magnetic flux can be shed from dense clouds as they form in the diffuse ISM, leaving behind a magnetically dominated diffuse gas.
This paper explores how separated fathers, who may have limited or no contact with their children, can be understood from a non-deficit perspective (Fleming 2002; Hawkins & Dollahite 1997; King 2000, 2001, 2005; King, Sweeney & Fletcher 2004). It describes how the generative fathering framework is used as a model to assist separated fathers to rebuild their connection with their children. The paper also examines parent/child contact time from a child focused perspective.
Consistent information on the non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) content of foods and the NMES intake by the population is required in order to allow comparisons between dietary surveys. A critical appraisal of methods of NMES estimation was conducted to investigate whether the different published methods for estimating the NMES content of foods lead to significantly different values for the dietary intake of NMES by children and to consider the relative practicality of each method. NMES values of foods were calculated using three different published descriptions of methods of NMES estimation, and the values were compared within food groups. Dietary intake values for English children aged 11–12 years were calculated using each method and compared in terms of overall NMES intake and the contribution of different food groups to NMES intake. There was no significant difference in the dietary intake of NMES in children between the method used in the National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (NDNS) (81·9 g/d; 95 % CI 79·0, 84·7) and a method developed by the Human Nutrition Research Centre (84·3 g/d; 95 % CI 81·4, 87·2) at Newcastle University, UK, although the latter gave slightly higher values. An earlier method used by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries gave significantly higher values than the other two methods (102·5 g/d; 95 % CI 99·3, 105·6; P<0·05). The method used in the NDNS surveys and the method used by the Human Nutrition Research Centre at Newcastle University are both thorough and detailed methods that give consistent results. However, the method used in the NDNS surveys was more straightforward to apply in practice and is the best method for a single uniform approach to the estimation of NMES.
Following on from the article appearing in Children Australia Vol 30 No 2 (King 2005), this short paper develops a checklist for organisations working with fathers for assessing the programs they provide to men. The checklist uses four categories – environment, language, initial contact and marketing, and service provision – to assess their programs’ strengths and weaknesses.
The paper provides an opportunity for organisations to benchmark their approach in working with male service users and provides guidance on how program delivery can be improved.
I have written of the causes of the decline [decadenza] in the affairs of Spain, of the measures required for its recovery [per riordinarla], of the interests of the princes who are pretenders to that crown, and of the ease with which the prince who attains it may move towards making himself lord of the world [per insignorirsi del mondo]; not in order to favour a government as damaging to good customs and destructive of the general happiness of men, as one which is universal [un universale], and as are all governments, whether republics or monarchies, whose greatness rests on excessive wealth and power: but rather by putting all the other princes and states on their guard against whoever should pursue that ambition, to frustrate such a design, and spare the world from so much ruin. Following this line of reasoning it should be easy to show which are the best governments, which nourish the virtues [le virtu] and are of most benefit to mankind; as also to show how great an opportunity the subjects of the Spanish crown will have on the death of their King to gain those advantages, and to enjoy the benefits of peace, of liberty and of good government.
The Empire of Spain [I'lmperio di Spagna] is so well adapted to be the foundation of that of the world that when the present King dies, an event which his ill-health makes likely within a few years, perhaps a few months, if from among all the pretenders to an empire [imperio] which is disordered rather than ruined and undone, there succeeds a wise and vigorous prince, it is most unlikely that he will restrain his ambitions. I have therefore undertaken to discuss the interests of the princes who are pretenders to the crown of Spain; the decline in the affairs of that country, and the means which will be necessary to revive it [riordinarla] and to fit it to acquire the empire of the world [I'imperio del mondo].