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Social cognitive deficits can have many negative consequences, spanning social withdrawal to psychopathology. Prior work has shown that child maltreatment may associate with poorer social cognitive skills in later life. However, no studies have examined this association from early childhood into adolescence. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 4,438), we examined the association between maltreatment (caregiver physical or emotional abuse; sexual or physical abuse), assessed repeatedly (every 1–3 years) from birth to age 9, and social cognitive skills at ages 7.5, 10.5, and 14 years. We evaluated the role of both the developmental timing (defined by age at exposure) and accumulation of maltreatment (defined as the number of occasions exposed) using a least angle regression variable selection procedure, followed by structural equation modeling. Among females, accumulation of maltreatment explained the most variation in social cognitive skills. For males, no significant associations were found. These findings underscore the importance of early intervention to minimize the accumulation of maltreatment and showcase the importance of prospective studies to understand the development of social cognition over time.
Schizotypy represents a cluster of personality traits consisting of magical beliefs, perceptual aberrations, disorganisation, and anhedonia. Schizotypy denotes a vulnerability for psychosis, one reason being psychosocial stress. High expressed emotion (EE), a rating of high criticism, hostility, and emotional over-involvement from a close relative, denotes psychosocial stress and vulnerability to psychosis, and is associated with schizotypy. This study aimed to decipher the relationship of schizotypy to perceived criticism and perceived praise in terms of affect and perceived EE.
Ninety-eight healthy participants listened to short audio-clips containing criticism, praise, and neutral comments from a stranger, and evaluated them in terms of the comments’ arousal and personal relevance. Participants also answered self-report questionnaires of schizotypy, depression, mood, and perceived EE. Correlational analyses tested the relationship between schizotypy and the evaluations of criticism and praise. Mediation analyses then tested whether depression, positive mood, and perceived EE explained these relationships.
Greater relevance of standard criticism correlated with higher positive schizotypy. This association was fully mediated by high depression and perceived irritability from a close relative. Lower relevance of standard praise correlated with higher cognitive disorganisation (another schizotypal trait). This relationship was partially mediated by low positive mood and high perceived intrusiveness from a close relative.
Greater perceived criticism and lower perceived praise predict schizotypy in the healthy population. Affect and interpersonal sensitivity towards a close relative explain these relationships, such that depression increases perceived criticism, and positive mood increases perceived praise. Perceived EE defines the interpersonal nature of schizotypy.
Caring for a child with intellectual disabilities can be a very rewarding but demanding experience. Research in this area has primarily focused on mothers, with relatively little attention given to the mental health of fathers.
The purpose of this review was to summarise the evidence related to the mental health of fathers compared with mothers, and with fathers in the general population.
A meta-analysis was undertaken of all studies published by 1 July 2018 in Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE, using terms on intellectual disabilities, mental health and father carers. Papers were selected based on pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Of 5544 results, 20 studies met the inclusion criteria and 12 had appropriate data for meta-analysis. For comparisons of fathers with mothers, mothers were significantly more likely to have poor general mental health and well-being (standardised mean difference (SMD) −0.38, 95% CI −0.56 to −0.20), as well as higher levels of depression (SMD, −0.46; 95% CI −0.68 to −0.24), stress (SMD, −0.32; 95% CI −0.46 to −0.19) and anxiety (SMD, −0.30; 95% CI −0.50 to −0.10).
There is a significant difference between the mental health of father and mother carers, with fathers less likely to exhibit poor mental health. However, this is based on a small number of studies. More data is needed to determine whether the general mental health and anxiety of father carers of a child with intellectual disabilities differs from fathers in the general population.
One of the critical components of energy savings in buildings is thermal insulation, especially for windows in cold climates. The conventional approach mainly relies on a double-pane design. In this study, a new concept of “Green Window” has been designed for single-pane applications that lower the U-factor. The “Green Window” is structurally and simply composed of a thin film window coating of chlorophyll that exhibits pronounced photothermal effect, while remaining highly transparent. We demonstrate a new concept in “thermal insulation” via optical means instead of solely through thermal insulators or spectral selectivity. This concept lifts the dependence on insulating materials making single-pane window highly possible.
Bastin et al. propose a dual-process model to understand memory deficits. However, results from state-trace analysis have suggested a single underlying variable in behavioral and neural data. We advocate the usage of unidimensional models that are supported by data and have been successful in understanding memory deficits and in linking to neural data.
Although childhood adversity is a potent determinant of psychopathology, relatively little is known about how the characteristics of adversity exposure, including its developmental timing or duration, influence subsequent mental health outcomes. This study compared three models from life course theory (recency, accumulation, sensitive period) to determine which one(s) best explained this relationship.
Prospective data came from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7476). Four adversities commonly linked to psychopathology (caregiver physical/emotional abuse; sexual/physical abuse; financial stress; parent legal problems) were measured repeatedly from birth to age 8. Using a statistical modeling approach grounded in least angle regression, we determined the theoretical model(s) explaining the most variability (r2) in psychopathology symptoms measured at age 8 using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and evaluated the magnitude of each association.
Recency was the best fitting theoretical model for the effect of physical/sexual abuse (girls r2 = 2.35%; boys r2 = 1.68%). Both recency (girls r2 = 1.55%) and accumulation (boys r2 = 1.71%) were the best fitting models for caregiver physical/emotional abuse. Sensitive period models were chosen alone (parent legal problems in boys r2 = 0.29%) and with accumulation (financial stress in girls r2 = 3.08%) more rarely. Substantial effect sizes were observed (standardized mean differences = 0.22–1.18).
Child psychopathology symptoms are primarily explained by recency and accumulation models. Evidence for sensitive periods did not emerge strongly in these data. These findings underscore the need to measure the characteristics of adversity, which can aid in understanding disease mechanisms and determining how best to reduce the consequences of exposure to adversity.
Relative poverty, a concept developed by left-wing social scientists, categorises as ‘poor’ those who fall seriously behind normal nationwide material standards. This article argues that the widespread view that the word ‘poverty’ means ‘relative poverty’, which in left-dominated social policy academia often extends to implying that those who do not define poverty this way are necessarily misguided, has led to an incomplete portrayal of poorer British people's lived experience. The article examines published empirical work, before presenting findings from British Social Attitudes surveys and interviews with forty unemployed Jobseeker's Allowance claimants and thirty employed people. Both the existing and new findings exposed aspects of public attitudes and experience which resonate with unanswered academic criticisms of defining poverty as relative poverty. These public contributions have tended to be glossed over or treated dismissively by social policy authors, despite them attaching importance to Left-friendly aspects of poorer people's experience and attitudes.
Research suggests that the way in which cognitive therapy is delivered is an important factor in determining outcomes. We test the hypotheses in which the development of a shared problem list, use of case formulation, homework tasks and active intervention strategies will act as process variables.
Presence of these components during therapy is taken from therapist notes. The direct and indirect effect of the intervention is estimated by an instrumental variable analysis.
A significant decrease in the symptom score for case formulation (coefficient =–23, 95% CI –44 to –1.7, P = 0.036) and homework (coefficient =–0.26, 95% CI –0.51 to –0.001, P = 0.049) is found. Improvement with the inclusion of active change strategies is of borderline significance (coefficient =–0.23, 95% CI –0.47 to 0.005, P = 0.056).
There is a greater treatment effect if formulation and homework are involved in therapy. However, high correlation between components means that these may be indicators of overall treatment fidelity.
This is a study of the growth and decline of cities for the purpose of identifying those events in which they significantly increased in size. Significant changes in the scale of cities are important for understanding the long-term trend toward more complex and hierarchical human societies. We report the results of an inventory of cycles, upsweeps, and collapses of settlements in five separate interpolity systems. Upsweeps are instances in which the largest settlement in a world system significantly increases in size. Collapses occur when the size of the largest settlement greatly decreases and stays down for a significant period of time rather than rebounding. We use regional interpolity systems (world systems) rather than single polities or settlements as our unit of analysis. Because the accurate designation of sweeps requires interval scale measures, we are limited to those regions and time periods for which quantitative estimates of largest settlement sizes are regularly available. We find a total of 18 upsweeps and five downsweeps, and only two instances of prolonged systemwide settlement collapse. We also investigate whether or not the rate of cycles has increased over the long run, and we find that cycles of city growth and decline have not accelerated. We also find a greater rate of urban cycles in the Western (Central) System than in the East Asian System, which supports the usual notion that the Western city system was less stable than the Eastern city system.
The Work Programme's use of severe social security benefit sanctions reflects British coalition ministers’ belief that many people on out-of-work benefits do not want a job. While a substantial empirical literature has repeatedly demonstrated that in fact unemployed benefit claimants possess the same work values as the employed and that the vast majority want paid work, it has ignored some conservative authors’ pleas to consider the views and experiences of people who work with the unemployed. Forty employees of agencies contracted to help unemployed people into employment were interviewed in summer 2011. Respondents had spent an estimated combined total of 147,000 hours in the presence of people who have claimed Jobseeker's Allowance (JSA) for over six months. Most said that between a quarter and half of their present clients did not want employment. This finding does not contradict existing research, given that most JSA claimants re-enter employment within six months. However, all forty agreed that many others remained unemployed because they were choosy in the jobs they were willing to undertake, and, most strikingly, respondents overwhelmingly endorsed the view that a ‘dependency culture’ exists in households and neighbourhoods that have experienced joblessness for several generations.
This article presents results from the first 3 rounds of an international intercomparison of measurements of Δ14CO2 in liter-scale samples of whole air by groups using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The ultimate goal of the intercomparison is to allow the merging of Δ14CO2 data from different groups, with the confidence that differences in the data are geophysical gradients and not artifacts of calibration. Eight groups have participated in at least 1 round of the intercomparison, which has so far included 3 rounds of air distribution between 2007 and 2010. The comparison is intended to be ongoing, so that: a) the community obtains a regular assessment of differences between laboratories; and b) individual laboratories can begin to assess the long-term repeatability of their measurements of the same source air. Air used in the intercomparison was compressed into 2 high-pressure cylinders in 2005 and 2006 at Niwot Ridge, Colorado (USA), with one of the tanks “spiked” with fossil CO2, so that the 2 tanks span the range of Δ14CO2 typically encountered when measuring air from both remote background locations and polluted urban ones. Three groups show interlaboratory comparability within l% for ambient level Δ14CO2. For high CO2/low Δ14CO2 air, 4 laboratories showed comparability within 2%. This approaches the goals set out by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) CO2 Measurements Experts Group in 2005. One important observation is that single-sample precisions typically reported by the AMS community cannot always explain the observed differences within and between laboratories. This emphasizes the need to use long-term repeatability as a metric for measurement precision, especially in the context of long-term atmospheric monitoring.
Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with improved health outcomes, yet there is limited understanding of the impact of cost and accessibility on fruit and vegetable intake in rural settings. This study examines the relationship between the consumption of fruits and vegetables and their cost and accessibility among blacks and non-Hispanic whites in a rural area. Individual characteristics from a 2006 mail survey (n = 1,510) were combined with store locations and price information from a 2006 ground-truthed census of retail outlets. The mail survey covered seven counties in central Texas with 38 supermarkets/grocery stores. Blacks tended to live closer to a supermarket or grocery store, but they were only slightly more likely than whites to consume two or more servings of fruit daily and much less likely to consume three or more servings of vegetables. Multivariate probit regression analysis revealed that neither access nor cost was related to fruit or vegetable consumption among white respondents. Among blacks, cost was also not associated with consumption. In contrast to whites, however, each additional mile was associated with a three percentage point decline in the probability of consuming two or more servings of fruit daily and a 1.8 percentage point decline in the probability of consuming three or more vegetable servings.
Ligamentum teres. This strong ligament inserts into the fovea centralis of the femoral head along with important nutrient vessels.
Acetabular labrum. This incomplete fibrocartilaginous ring contributes to hip joint stability. It may undergo traumatic or degenerative tearing leading to hip pain, instability and mechanical symptoms such as clicking.
Gluteus medius tendon. This is an important abductor and lateral rotator of the hip that inserts upon the lateral and posterior facets of the greater trochanter.
Iliotibial band (ITB) or tract. This long dense fascial band is a continuation of the tensor fascia lata muscle. It may undergo friction with resultant thickening and inflammation as it passes over the greater trochanter, producing painful, proximal ITB friction syndrome.
Transverse part of the ilio-femoral ligament. The ilio-femoral ligament is a thickening of the joint capsule and is the strongest of the three hip ligaments, the other two being the ischio-femoral and pubo-femoral ligaments.
Right sacroiliac joint.
Right anterior inferior iliac spine.
Right superior pubic ramus.
Left obturator foramen.
Contrast in bladder.
Cystograms are performed by either hand injecting, or running in a contrast infusion through either a urethral or suprapubic catheter. Both antero-posterior (AP) and lateral views should be taken, and the bladder should be filled as much as a patient can tolerate.
Lesser tuberosity of the right humerus. The subscapularis tendon attaches here. This may rarely become avulsed during hyper-external rotation injury due to traction by the subscapularis tendon insertion.
Greater tuberosity of the right humerus. This forms the bony footprint for the supraspinatus tendon.
Right acromion. The coraco-acromial ligament attaches from here to the coracoid process, forming a roof over the shoulder joint. Bony enthesopathy of this ligament may contribute to subacromial impingement of the supraspinatus tendon and is implicated as a causative factor in the evolution of rotator cuff tears.
Right acromio-clavicular joint. This narrow synovial joint commonly undergoes degenerative changes but may also develop erosions in inflammatory arthropathy.
The antero-inferior glenoid rim. This bears the attachment of the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament, which is an important static stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint. This region may be fractured during anterior glenohumeral dislocation, producing a bony Bankart lesion.
Coronal T1-weighted MR knee
Medial collateral ligament (MCL). This important ligament arises from the medial femoral condyle and inserts on the medial tibial diaphysis and resists valgus stress of the knee.
Posterior cruciate ligament. This strong ligament arises from the lateral surface of the medial femoral condyle and inserts on the posterior intercondylar fossa of the tibia. It is a central stabilizer of the knee resisting posterior tibial translation.
Iliotibial band (ITB). This long structure originates from the fascia of the iliotibial tract and inserts on Gerdy's tubercle on the antero-lateral tibia. Distally it may undergo repetitive friction over the lateral border of the lateral femoral condyle to produce painful distal ITB friction syndrome.
Articular cartilage of medial tibial plateau. This thick layer of hyaline cartilage is composed of four zones or layers. During the evolution of osteoarthrosis the chondral layers may undergo softening, fibrillation, fissures and progressive thinning, ultimately resulting in full-thickness cartilage loss and sclerosis of the exposed sub-chondral bone.
Discoid lateral meniscus. The lateral meniscus is broad, spanning the whole width of the lateral tibio-femoral compartment. This normal variant, if present, is frequently bilateral and should be examined carefully due to the high incidence of degenerative tears with this variant.