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Frontal ablation from tidewater glaciers is a major component of the total mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet. It remains unclear, however, how changes in atmospheric and oceanic temperatures translate into changes in frontal ablation, in part due to sparse observations at sufficiently high spatial and temporal resolution. We present high-frequency time-lapse imagery (photos every 30 min) of iceberg calving and meltwater plumes at Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (KNS), southwest Greenland, during June–October 2017, alongside satellite-derived ice velocities and modelled subglacial discharge. Early in the melt season, we infer a subglacial hydrological network with multiple outlets that would theoretically distribute discharge and enhance undercutting by submarine melt, an inference supported by our observations of terminus-wide calving during this period. During the melt season, we infer hydraulic evolution to a relatively more channelised subglacial drainage configuration, based on meltwater plume visibility indicating focused emergence of subglacial water; these observations coincide with a reduction in terminus-wide calving and transition to an incised planform terminus geometry. We suggest that temporal variations in subglacial discharge and near-terminus subglacial hydraulic efficiency exert considerable influence on calving and frontal ablation at KNS.
This chapter considers the often overlooked historical contributions and contemporary importance of traditions of Christian Platonism within the development of the natural sciences. After introducing key conceptual elements, it considers the salience of Christian Platonic approaches for a variety of scientific fields including mathematics, biology, psychology, and ecology.”
The growth in wirelessly enabled sensor network technologies has enabled the low cost deployment of sensor platforms with applications in a range of sectors and communities. In the agricultural domain such sensors have been the foundation for the creation of decision support tools that enhance farm operational efficiency. This Research Reflection illustrates how these advances are assisting dairy farmers to optimise performance and illustrates where emerging sensor technology can offer additional benefits. One of the early applications for sensor technology at an individual animal level was the accurate identification of cattle entering into heat (oestrus) to increase the rate of successful pregnancies and thus optimise milk yield per animal. This was achieved through the use of activity monitoring collars and leg tags. Additional information relating to the behaviour of the cattle, namely the time spent eating and ruminating, was subsequently derived from collars giving further insights of economic value into the wellbeing of the animal, thus an enhanced range of welfare related services have been provisioned. The integration of the information from neck-mounted collars with the compositional analysis data of milk measured at a robotic milking station facilitates the early diagnosis of specific illnesses such as mastitis. The combination of different data streams also serves to eliminate the generation of false alarms, improving the decision making capability. The principle of integrating more data streams from deployed on-farm systems, for example, with feed composition data measured at the point of delivery using instrumented feeding wagons, supports the optimisation of feeding strategies and identification of the most productive animals. Optimised feeding strategies reduce operational costs and minimise waste whilst ensuring high welfare standards. These IoT-inspired solutions, made possible through Internet-enabled cloud data exchange, have the potential to make a major impact within farming practices. This paper gives illustrative examples and considers where new sensor technology from the automotive industry may also have a role.
The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine whether clinical and subclinical effects on cattle were similar if provided with isoenergetic and isonitrogenous challenge diets in which carbohydrate sources were predominantly starch or sugar. The study was a 3 × 3 Latin square using six adult Jersey cows with rumen cannulae, over 9 weeks. In the first 2 weeks of each 3 week experimental period cows were fed with a maintenance diet and, in the last week, each animal was assigned to one of three diets: a control diet (CON), being a continuation of the maintenance diet; a high starch (HSt) or a high sugar (HSu) diet. Reticuloruminal pH and motility were recorded throughout the study period. Blood and ruminal samples were taken on day-1 (TP-1), day-2 (TP-2) and day-7 (TP-7) of each challenge week. Four clinical variables were recorded daily: diarrhoea, inappetence, depression and ruminal tympany. The effects of treatment, hour of day and day after treatment on clinical parameters were analysed using linear mixed effects (LME) models. Although both challenge diets resulted in a decline in pH, an increase in the absolute pH residuals and an increase in the number of minutes per day under pH 5.8, systemic inflammation was only detected with the HSt diet. The challenge diets differentially modified amplitude and period of reticuloruminal contractions compared with CON diet and both were associated with an increased probability of diarrhoea. The HSu diet reduced the probability of an animal consuming its complete allocation. Because the challenge diets were derived from complex natural materials (barley and molasses respectively), it is not possible to assign all the differential effects to the difference in starch and sugar concentration: non-starch components of barley or non-sugar components of molasses might have contributed to some of the observations. In conclusion, substituting much of the starch with sugar caused no substantial reduction in the acidosis load, but inflammatory response was reduced while feed rejection was increased.
Theological discussions of participation have typically been worked out either in relation to the doctrine of creation – how the created order receives what it is by a sharing from God – or in the realm of soteriology (or the doctrine of salvation). We turn here to that second area of doctrine in this chapter and the next. We see that notions of participation are integral, and foregrounded, in certain approaches to redemption, especially those belonging to what is often called the 'ontological' approach, which places an emphasis on God's sharing of humanity in Christ as itself redemptive, and which typically talks about our sharing in divinity as the consequence. The connection of these ideas to Paul's notion of being 'in Christ' is explored, alongside other, parallel, Biblical themes. Other accounts of redemption are also shown to have a strong participatory basis, including substitutionary accounts, at least where what God shares with humanity in Christ – namely, our humanity – has been thought to be integral for why such a substitution can be said to have occurred.
Throughout this survey of participation, the closeness of participation to mediation is often in view. By mediation, here, we mean the way in which one thing acts in or through another, or is encountered in or through another. Here this is taken up in terms of how divine action is mediated in or through creatures. This allows us to explore the way in which participatory accounts inherently line up with 'non-contrastive' account of the relation of creatures to God, here especially in the relation of creaturely action with divine action. The indescribably great difference of creatures from God underlies the intimacy of divine presence, such that the presence and action of God do not exclude the presence and action of the creature. This is explored, among other ways, in relation to divine and creaturely freedom.
The final chapters of this book look at how a participatory outlook can inform and has informed a vision of the world and what it means to live, act, pray, and seek God in it. This, the first of these chapters, considers knowledge and knowing in participatory terms. Knowledge is seen as a participation of the knower in the known, or a sharing from the known to the knower. This undergirds a 'realist' epistemology, in that knowing rests on the reality of the thing that is known. That said, it also stresses the creaturehood and particularity of the knower and the manner of knowing: that which is known comes to be in the knower in the manner of the knower, whether we are talking about our knowledge of an animal, of a plant, or of God. In the case of God, most of all, the knower never exhausts the depths of what is known. That also applies, however, although to a different degree, in the knowledge of even mundane things, since their deepest reality is a participation in God, which confers a creaturely form of inexhaustibility. In these ways, much of this chapter is an exploration of 'intra-finite participation': about how one creature participates in, or donates to, another. It closes with a discussion of the relation between reason and revelation.
The first five chapters of the book examine the relation of creation to creator in terms of Aristotle's 'four causes' (or four aspects of causation): that God is the efficient, formal (or exemplar), and final cause of creation, but not the material cause. In this chapter, we consider further what it would mean to describe God as a cause, and relate the three of Aristotle's aspects of causation that can be applied analogically to God to the three Persons of the Trinity. The history of speaking in this way – of 'appropriating' divine acts or aspects of divine acts to Persons of the Trinity – is considered. Also discussed here are ways in which the language of participation has been used to talk about inter-Trinitarian relations.
This chapter, on beauty, explores the desirability and splendor of creatures as a participation in divine beauty and goodness. It is, at heart, an exploration of what to love, and how to love it. In the words of an ancient prayer, the message is one of loving God 'above all things, and in all things'. As a contrasting position, we consider the vision of the Swedish Lutheran theologian Anders Nygren. Unlike his appeal for us to sever love for God from love for creatures, the vision in this chapter is integrative. The tendency is considered, all the same, for human waywardness in how we love, and the order of our loving. While the reality of sin and the need for restraint are recognised, the characteristics of a 'participatory spirituality' are seen not to be founded on denial or rejection: what Martin Buber calls one of 'subtraction ... or reduction'. The focus for the chapter is for the most part what could be called the beauty of goodness. It concludes with a discussion of the participatory character of aesthetic beauty.
In this chapter, we take a step back and consider a range of underlying concepts and metaphors that express something of what it means to participate, in or from another, and particularly to participate in or from God. 'Part of' language is found to have little value, while the idea of 'part in' is more promising. Notions of a limited reception from another have also been significant, as has the language of likeness. Two approaches are found to be particularly valuable: the idea of reception from a boundless source according to the distinct mode of being of the recipient, and the relation of source to recipient that is indicated by causation.
This chapter on participation in goodness, and on ethics or a good life, has been prepared for by the previous chapter, on beauty and desire. Like the chapter on truth and epistemology before that, this chapter on goodness is robustly realist: it sees what would be morally good for a person, community, or situation to align with the reality and good of the thing considered, which it has by participation in God. The twin focuses here are virtue ethics (which is explored in terms of the alignment of the good-as-moral with the good-as-excellent) and natural law (which is explored in terms of the alignment of the good-as-moral with the good-as-beneficial). No firm wedge, however, is driven between those two approaches, which are both related to God as source and goal in participatory terms. The chapter moves to a discussion of the expectation of the coherence of the good in a participatory framework, such that the goodness that creatures have (and, here, especially human beings) is expected naturally to align with the nature of the good as communicated, for instance, in revelation. This is explored in contrast with the thought of John Duns Scotus. The chapter ends with a participatory discussion of the nature of law in its various forms, including the participatory and theological backdrop to notions of international law.
Under the title of 'participation', theologians and philosophers have explored what it means for the reality that we observe, and in which we dwell, to have its origin in a divine or transcendent source. This introductory chapter surveys what is to come in this book on the theme of participation. It considers the principal sources that are to be used, especially the Christian Bible and the writings of Thomas Aquinas. It also considers the relation between philosophy and theology, and between conceptual studies and their application within the practical details of a life lived with an eye to participation.
Ideas of likeness are central to accounts of participation. In this chapter, we consider not only what it means for creatures to derive their existence (or – better – being) from God but also their nature, essence, or characterfulness. This is the territory of exemplarity and exemplary causation. A Platonic tradition of thinking about exemplarity is considered, not least in terms of the way it has been taken up and transformed by writers working in a Biblical tradition. Different ways to think about exemplarity are considered, particularly the theological distinction between likeness, image, and vestige, and between a likeness to a divine idea and a likeness to a divine perfection. Attention is given to the idea of the imago dei.
Within a participatory framework of metaphysics, evil is characteristically seen as a matter of privation. If all being, characterfulness, and action are had by creatures as a participation in, or from, God, then evil is a failure or occlusion of that participation. In this chapter, evil-as-privation is explored in terms of evil as washed-out, senseless, and always taking a form that is strictly relative to the particular good of the particular creature. The chapter ends with a discussion of the non-concurrence of God in evil, and how it might be that evil is possible. Evil is seen to have the character of non-relation between creatures.
The final chapter of the opening five (on creation's relation to God as its cause) considers God as the final cause of creation: the goal, and one toward whom creation, and creatures, are oriented. This aspect of the relation of creation to God is particularly to be associated with the Holy Spirit. We look at what it means for a creature to achieve its fulfilment, and how that relates to God. For rational creatures, this is to be found most of all in knowing and loving God, in the beatific vision. A social dimension to human perfection is part of this.
Alone among Aristotle's four causes, the dynamic of material causation cannot be ascribed to God when it comes to creation. The material cause is that 'out of which' something comes to be, and creation is not made out of God. God is, however, the cause of materiality. Discussion of these themes allows us to see the profound difference between accounts of participation and notions of pantheism or panentheism. It also opens up a discussion of what it means for creatures to be 'substantial': they have real being, but it is not self-grounded being; they have being, but it is being had from another.
In the first of five opening chapters on participation and divine causation, we look at 'efficient' or 'agent' causation: what it means, from a participatory perspective, for God to be the cause and agent of creation. The chapter situates the idea of participation within the foundational doctrine, common to the Abrahamic faiths, of creation as being ex nihilo. Nothing is coaeval with God; nor did God rely upon anything else for creation: on eternally existent matter, for instance. Creation is not some past event, now over, but should rather be seen as a relation of dependence upon the creator. This is explored in terms of gift and of the relation of the doctrine of creation to the doctrine of God. This leads on to a discussion of theological apologetics.