To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Social and economic changes associated with new roads can bring about rapid nutritional transitions. To study this process, we: 1) describe trends in adult overweight and obesity (OW/OB) among rural Afro-Ecuadorians over time and across a gradient of community remoteness from the nearest commercial center; 2) examine the relationship between male and female adult OW/OB and factors associated with market integration such as changing livelihoods; and, 3) examine the co-occurrence of adult OW/OB and under-five stunting and anemia.
Adult anthropometry was collected through serial case-control studies repeated over a decade across twenty-eight communities. At the same time, anthropometry and hemoglobin were measured for all children under five in every community.
Northern coastal Ecuador.
Adults (N=1665) and children under five (N=2618).
From 2003 and 2013, OW/OB increased from 25.1% to 44.8% among men and 59.9% to 70.2% among women. The inverse relationship between remoteness and OW/OB in men was attenuated when adjusting for urban employment, suggesting that livelihoods mediated the remoteness-OW/OB relationship. No such relationship was observed among women. Communities with a higher prevalence of male OW/OB also had a greater prevalence of stunting, but not anemia, in children under five.
The association between male OW/OB and child stunting at the community level, but not the household level, suggests that changing food environments, rather than household- or individual-level factors, drove these trends. A closer examination of changing socioeconomic structures and food environments in communities undergoing rapid development could help mitigate future public health burdens.
The James Bond films starring Daniel Craig are amongst the most globally successful films of the twenty-first century. The transnational appeal of these films can only be partly explained by their textual attractions, such as the way they play out ideas of British identity. Much of their success depends on the business of Bond, from rights ownership to distribution. Focus group interviews with audiences in continental Europe also reveal an ambivalence about whether the Bond character and the Bond films are perceived as British or American. This ambivalence extends the appeal of the films to different audiences. This chapter therefore provides new insights into Bond's enduring transnational appeal.
Keywords: James Bond, audience research, British national identity, film distribution, film industry
James Bond may be a British agent, but the Bond film franchise is by any definition a global phenomenon. It is one of the longest running movie franchises, with 24 films dating back to the first release in 1962, and the second most lucrative franchise, amassing some $7 billion at box-offices around the world (The Numbers 2016a). According to the American Statistical Association, “20% of the world's population has seen at least one Bond film” (Young 2014).
The four most recent Bond films starring Daniel Craig as Agent 007—Casino Royale (UK/Czech Republic/USA/Germany/Bahamas: Martin Campbell 2006), Quantum of Solace (UK/USA: Marc Foster 2008), Skyfall (UK/USA: Sam Mendes 2012) and Spectre (UK/USA/Austria/Mexico/Italy/Morocco: Sam Mendes 2015)—continue the pattern of global success. Skyfall grossed $1.1 billion worldwide, making it the fifteenth most successful film of all time in terms of worldwide box office revenue (Box Office Mojo 2016a), and the most successful Bond film ever (The Numbers 2016b). Between them, the four Craig Bonds have taken over $3 billion at the worldwide box office, with all of them in the 125 highest-grossing films of all time (Box Office Mojo 2016a).
The Craig Bond films were conceived as a “reboot” of the Bond film franchise. Casino Royale is set at the beginning of Bond's career as Agent 007, and the story arc continues across Quantum of Solace, Skyfall and Spectre.
The EAT–Lancet Commission promulgated a universal reference diet. Subsequently, researchers constructed an EAT–Lancet diet score (0–14 points), with minimum intake values for various dietary components set at 0 g/d, and reported inverse associations with risks of major health outcomes in a high-income population. We assessed associations between EAT–Lancet diet scores, without or with lower bound values, and the mean probability of micronutrient adequacy (MPA) among nutrition-insecure women of reproductive age (WRA) from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We analysed single 24-h diet recall data (n 1950) from studies in rural DRC, Ecuador, Kenya, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. Associations between EAT–Lancet diet scores and MPA were assessed by fitting linear mixed-effects models. Mean EAT–Lancet diet scores were 8·8 (SD 1·3) and 1·9 (SD 1·1) without or with minimum intake values, respectively. Pooled MPA was 0·58 (SD 0·22) and energy intake was 10·5 (SD 4·6) MJ/d. A one-point increase in the EAT–Lancet diet score, without minimum intake values, was associated with a 2·6 (SD 0·7) percentage points decrease in MPA (P < 0·001). In contrast, the EAT–Lancet diet score, with minimum intake values, was associated with a 2·4 (SD 1·3) percentage points increase in MPA (P = 0·07). Further analysis indicated positive associations between EAT–Lancet diet scores and MPA adjusted for energy intake (P < 0·05). Our findings indicate that the EAT–Lancet diet score requires minimum intake values for nutrient-dense dietary components to avoid positively scoring non-consumption of food groups and subsequently predicting lower MPA of diets, when applied to rural WRA in LMIC.
To determine the association between livestock ownership and Hb concentration of women of child-bearing age (WCBA) and preschool-aged children in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
A prospective analysis of publicly available cross-sectional data, using linear and logistic regressions controlling for potential confounders.
Twenty-eight countries in SSA.
162 305 WCBA and 118 607 children aged 6–59 months.
More than half of WCBA (62·5 %) and children (58 %) belonged to households that owned livestock. The average altitude-adjusted blood Hb concentration for WCBA and children was 12.23 and 10·24 g/dL, respectively. In adjusted models, higher number of livestock owned was associated with lower Hb concentration for children but not for WCBA. The magnitude of the association for children was small, with one additional unit of livestock owned reducing Hb concentration by 0·001 g/dL. Higher numbers of cattle, cows and bulls, sheep, and goats were associated with lower Hb concentration for both groups. The number of certain categories of livestock owned was associated with the consumption of relevant foods by children. There was no association between the consumption of animal-source foods and Hb concentration or between livestock ownership and diarrhoeal diseases or fever among children.
Livestock ownership in SSA had a net negative association with the Hb concentration of children and no association with that of WCBA. The results highlight the need for research aimed at clarifying the mechanisms linking livestock ownership and nutritional status, and identifying entry points for leveraging livestock ownership to improve the health of women and children in SSA.
Sheet-defined functions (SDFs) bring modularity and abstraction to the world of spreadsheets. Alas, end users naturally write SDFs that work over fixed-size arrays, which limits their reusability. To help end user programmers write more reusable SDFs, we describe a principled approach to generalising such functions to become elastic SDFs that work over inputs of arbitrary size. We prove that under natural, checkable conditions, our algorithm returns the principal generalisation of an input SDF. We describe a formal semantics and several efficient implementation strategies for elastic SDFs. A user study with spreadsheet users compares the human experience of programming with elastic SDFs to the alternative of relying on array-processing combinators. Our user study finds that the cognitive load of elastic SDFs is lower than for SDFs with map/reduce array combinators, the closest alternative solution.
The solar magnesium II core-to-wing ratio has been a well-studied proxy for chromospheric activity since 1978. Daily measurements at high spectral (0.1 nm) resolution began with the launch of the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) in 2003. The next generation of measurements from the Extreme Ultraviolet Sensor (EUVS) on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 16 (GOES-16) will add high time cadence (every 30 seconds) to the observational Mg II irradiance record. We present a comparison of the two measurements during the period of overlap.
Ultraviolet (UV) Solar spectral Irradiance (SSI) has been measured from orbit on a regular basis since the beginning of the space age. These observations span four Solar Cycles, and they are crucial for our understanding of the Sun-Earth connection and space weather. SSI at these wavelengths are the main drivers for the upper atmosphere including the production and destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. The instruments that measure UV SSI not only require good preflight calibration, but also need a robust method to maintain that calibration on orbit. We will give an overview of the catalog of current and former UV SSI measurements along with the calibration philosophy of each instrument and an estimation of the uncertainties in the published irradiances.
The goal of the present study was to use a methodology that accurately and reliably describes the availability, price and quality of healthy foods at both the store and community levels using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S), to propose a spatial methodology for integrating these store and community data into measures for defining objective food access.
Two hundred and sixty-five retail food stores in and within 2 miles (3·2 km) of Flint, Michigan, USA, were mapped using ArcGIS mapping software.
A survey based on the validated NEMS-S was conducted at each retail food store. Scores were assigned to each store based on a modified version of the NEMS-S scoring system and linked to the mapped locations of stores. Neighbourhood characteristics (race and socio-economic distress) were appended to each store. Finally, spatial and kernel density analyses were run on the mapped store scores to obtain healthy food density metrics.
Regression analyses revealed that neighbourhoods with higher socio-economic distress had significantly lower dairy sub-scores compared with their lower-distress counterparts (β coefficient=−1·3; P=0·04). Additionally, supermarkets were present only in neighbourhoods with <60 % African-American population and low socio-economic distress. Two areas in Flint had an overall NEMS-S score of 0.
By identifying areas with poor access to healthy foods via a validated metric, this research can be used help local government and organizations target interventions to high-need areas. Furthermore, the methodology used for the survey and the mapping exercise can be replicated in other cities to provide comparable results.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
To determine the validity of a summary infant and child feeding index (ICFI) and the association with the index of factors related to agricultural production.
A cross-sectional survey in eight health-post jurisdictions identified as priority nutrition regions. All households with children aged 6–23 months in eligible communities were administered an integrated survey on agricultural production and nutrition-related practices. Quantitative 24 h dietary recall, food frequency data and anthropometric measurements were collected for each child. Ninety-one per cent of eligible families participated.
The northern region of the Potosí department in the Bolivian highlands.
Two hundred and fifty-one households with children aged 6–23 months.
In multiple regression models controlling for potential confounding variables, infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices as measured by an ICFI showed positive associations with child length-for-age Z-score (mean difference of 0·47 in length-for-age Z-score between children in the high ICFI tertile compared with the low tertile), child energy intake (mean difference of 1500 kJ between tertiles) and the micronutrient adequacy of child diets (mean difference of 7·2 % in mean micronutrient density adequacy between tertiles; P < 0·05). Examining determinants of IYCF practices, mother's education, livestock ownership and the crop diversity of farms were positively associated with the ICFI, while amount of agricultural land cultivated was negatively associated with the ICFI. Crop diversity and IYCF practices were more strongly positively correlated among households at high elevations.
Nutrition-sensitive investments in agriculture that aim to diversify subsistence agricultural production could plausibly benefit the adequacy of child diets.