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The physical and mechanical properties of many industrially important polymers are profoundly influenced by their degree of crystallinity; such properties include flex modulus, tensile strength, percent elongation, and impact strength. Commonly used polymers influenced by their crystallinity level include polyethlene, polypropylene, polyesters, and nylons. Many of these materials are above their glass transition temperature at room temperature and would be useless were it not for their crystalline phase which typically has a melting point far above room temperature. The crystalline ‘ regions (domains) in these materials are frequently very small, typically in the nanometer range in diameter. These crystalline domains act as reinforcing fillers (in somewhat the same manner as carbon black In rubber) and give strength to the polymer.
Impulsivity and compulsivity have been implicated as important transdiagnostic dimensional phenotypes with potential relevance to addiction. We aimed to develop a model that conceptualizes these constructs as overlapping dimensional phenotypes and test whether different components of this model explain the co-occurrence of addictive and related behaviors.
A large sample of adults (N = 487) was recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk and completed self-report questionnaires measuring impulsivity, intolerance of uncertainty, obsessive beliefs, and the severity of 6 addictive and related behaviors. Hierarchical clustering was used to organize addictive behaviors into homogenous groups reflecting their co-occurrence. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate fit of the hypothesized bifactor model of impulsivity and compulsivity and determine the proportion of variance explained in the co-occurrence of addictive and related behaviors by each component of the model.
Addictive and related behaviors clustered into 2 distinct groups: Impulse-Control Problems, consisting of harmful alcohol use, pathological gambling, and compulsive buying, and Obsessive-Compulsive-Related Problems, consisting of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, binge eating, and internet addiction. The hypothesized bifactor model of impulsivity and compulsivity provided the best empirical fit, with 3 uncorrelated factors corresponding to a general Disinhibition dimension, and specific Impulsivity and Compulsivity dimensions. These dimensional phenotypes uniquely and additively explained 39.9% and 68.7% of the total variance in Impulse-Control Problems and Obsessive-Compulsive-Related Problems.
A model of impulsivity and compulsivity that represents these constructs as overlapping dimensional phenotypes has important implications for understanding addictive and related behaviors in terms of shared etiology, comorbidity, and potential transdiagnostic treatments.
The churchmen who adhered to the established Church in Scotland during the years from 1661 to 1689, the last period in which it had bishops, have been overlooked by historians in favour of laymen and presbyterian dissenters. This article breaks new ground by examining the episcopalian clergy's attitude to the royal supremacy. To do so, it explores how Scottish episcopalians used the early Church under the Roman empire to illustrate their ideal relationship between Church and monarch. Three phases are evident in their approach. First, it was argued that conformists were, like early Christians, living in proper obedience, while presbyterians were seeking to create a separate jurisdiction in conflict with the king's. Later, Bishop Andrew Honeyman of Orkney tried to put some limitations on the royal supremacy over the Church, arguing that church courts had an independent power of discipline. This became politically unacceptable after the 1669 Act of Supremacy gave the king complete power over the Church, and, in the final phase, the history of the early Church was used to undermine the power of the church courts. The Church under the Roman empire, much like the royal supremacy itself, changed from an instrument to encourage conformity to a means of delegitimizing any clerical opposition to royal policy.
Transient storage and erosion of valley fills, or sediment buffering, is a fundamental but poorly quantified process that may significantly bias fluvial sediment budgets and marine archives used for paleoclimatic and tectonic reconstructions. Prolific sediment buffering is now recognized to occur within the mountainous upper Indus River headwaters and is quantified here for the first time using optically stimulated luminescence dating, petrography, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, and morphometric analysis to define the timing, provenance, and volumes of prominent valley fills. This study finds that climatically modulated sediment buffering occurs over 103–104 yr time scales and results in biases in sediment compositions and volumes. Increased sediment storage coincides with strong phases of summer monsoon and winter westerlies precipitation over the late Pleistocene (32–25 ka) and mid-Holocene (~8–6 ka), followed by incision and erosion with monsoon weakening. Glacial erosion and periglacial frost-cracking drive sediment production, and monsoonal precipitation mediates sediment evacuation, in contrast to the arid Transhimalaya and monsoonal frontal Himalaya. Plateau interior basins, although volumetrically large, lack transport capacity and are consequently isolated from the modern Indus River drainage. Marginal plateau catchments that both efficiently produce and evacuate sediment may regulate the overall compositions and volumes of exported sediment from the Himalayan rain shadow.
Gurga Chiya and Tepe Marani are small, adjacent mounds located close to the town of Halabja in the southern part of the Shahrizor Plain, one of the most fertile regions of Iraqi Kurdistan. Survey and excavation at these previously unexplored sites is beginning to produce evidence for human settlement spanning the sixth to the fourth millennia, c. 5600–3300 cal. b.c. In Mesopotamian chronology this corresponds to the Late Neolithic through to Chalcolithic periods; the Halaf, Ubaid, and Uruk phases of conventional culture history. In Iraqi Kurdistan, documentation of these periods—which witnessed many important transformations in prehistoric village life—is currently very thin. Here we offer a preliminary report on the emerging results from the Shahrizor Plain, with a particular focus on the description of material culture (ceramic and lithic assemblages), in order to establish a benchmark for further research. We also provide a detailed report on botanical remains and accompanying radiocarbon dates, which allow us to place this new evidence in a wider comparative framework. A further, brief account is given of Late Bronze Age material culture from the upper layers at Gurga Chiya. We conclude with observations on the significance of the Shahrizor Plain for wider research into the later prehistory of the Middle East, and the importance of preserving and investigating its archaeological record.
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) efficiently generate electricity, but high operating temperatures (Top > 800 °C) limit their utility. Reducing Top requires mixed ion–electron conducting (MIEC) cathode materials. Density functional theory is used here to investigate the role of potassium substitutions in the MIEC material Sr1−xKxFeO3 (SKFO). We predict that such substitutions are endothermic. SrFeO3 and SKFO have nearly identical metallic electronic structures. Oxygen vacancy formation energies decrease by ~0.2 eV when xK increases from 0 to 0.0625. SKFO is a promising SOFC MIEC cathode material; however, further experimental investigations must assess its long-term stability at the desired operating temperatures.
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) have become a widely recognized non-motor complication of Parkinson's disease (PD) in patients taking dopamine replacement therapy (DRT). There are no current evidence-based recommendations for their treatment, other than reducing their dopaminergic medication.
This study reviews the current literature of the treatment of ICDs including pharmacological treatments, deep brain stimulation, and psychotherapeutic interventions.
Dopamine agonist withdrawal is the most common and effective treatment, but may lead to an aversive withdrawal syndrome or motor symptom degeneration in some individuals. There is insufficient evidence for all other pharmacological treatments in treating ICDs in PD, including amantadine, serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and opioid antagonists (e.g. naltrexone). Large randomized control trials need to be performed before these drugs can be routinely used for the treatment of ICDs in PD. Deep brain stimulation remains equivocal because ICD symptoms resolve in some patients after surgery but may appear de novo in others. Cognitive behavioral therapy has been shown to improve ICD symptoms in the only published study, although further research is urgently needed.
Further research will allow for the development of evidence-based guidelines for the management of ICDs in PD.
As the first comprehensive study of Daves's career, this collection of essays seeks to deepen our understanding of his work, and also to problematize existing conceptions of him as a competent, conventional and even naïve studio man.
I much prefer the audience not to know that there's a director. That's my general thesis in regard to directing.
Delmer Daves is the property of those who can enjoy stylistic conviction in an intellectual vacuum. The movies of Delmer Daves are fun of a very special kind. Call it Camp or call it Corn. The director does not so much transcend his material as mingle with it.
Andrew Sarris, The American Cinema
American critics have never taken Delmer Daves seriously, and the way things look, they probably never will.
Jean-Pierre Coursodon, American Directors
It is tempting, in introducing a book of this nature, to declare at the outset something like, “Delmer Daves is the best filmmaker you've never heard of!” Alas, we cannot resort to such rhetoric—not because Delmer Daves is not a great, critically overlooked filmmaker, but because you likely have heard of him. Daves is remembered principally as a maker of Westerns, and of two Westerns in particular: Broken Arrow (1950) and 3:10 to Yuma (1957). The former, about an Army scout who brokers a peace treaty between the American government and the Chiricahua Apache, offered viewers a comparatively nuanced, sympathetic depiction of Native American culture, and in so doing helped to transform how American Indians are represented in cinema. The latter, a stylish, psychological frontier drama about a poor farmer who agrees to help escort a dangerous outlaw to the train that will take him to prison, is frequently considered among the best Westerns of the 1950s, and was even subject to a high-profile remake in 2007. As these synopses suggest, however, Broken Arrow and 3:10 to Yuma are quite different films, and are remembered for different reasons: the former for its sociocultural significance, the latter for its style. This perceived difference, it turns out, matters a great deal.
Making the jump from discussing individual films to discussing filmmakers normally requires us to detect consistency, not difference. Identifying recurring features of style or theme across multiple films implies the underlying presence of an impelling, organizing personality: an artist who imbues his work with his own vision of the world.
A gap between research and management exists in numerous natural resource fields. This can lead to management actions that are based on experience rather than evidence and may be less effective as a result. The gap may be partly attributable to research not being relevant, timely or accessible for managers. Editorial boards of peer-reviewed journals are responsible for determining the relevance of submitted manuscripts for a journal's readership. Limited representation of natural resource managers on editorial boards may make it more difficult for journals to identify the topics and findings of most relevance for management, thus contributing to the research–management gap. We quantified the representation of natural resource managers on the editorial boards of 79 conservation and applied natural resource journals. We found that 65% of editors were affiliated with universities, 13% with research institutions, 12% with government agencies and 3% with NGOs. On average, 9% of editors were affiliated with an agency or organization responsible for managing or regulating natural resources. The proportion of managers on editorial boards did not differ significantly between natural resource fields or with journal impact factor. Potential benefits of greater integration of managers into the research and publishing process include selection of research topics with greater relevance for management, clearer statements of the management implications of research studies, and more frequent publication of research evaluating the effectiveness of management interventions. Further study is needed to evaluate whether greater participation of managers in the editorial review process may contribute to achieving these benefits.
People with callous–unemotional traits and also those with autism
spectrum disorder (ASD) display sociocognitive difficulties. However, the
frequency and neurocognitive correlates of callous–unemotional traits
within individuals with ASD are unknown.
To determine the prevalence of callous–unemotional traits in individuals
with ASD and test their association with behavioural and cognitive
Parents of 92 adolescents with ASD completed the Antisocial Processes
Screening Device (APSD) for callous–unemotional traits. Adolescents
participated in tasks of emotion recognition, theory of mind and
In total 51% (n = 47) scored above a cut-off expected to
identify the top 6% on the APSD. Of these 17% (n = 8)
had concurrent conduct problems. Regression analyses found
callous–unemotional traits were associated with specific impairment in
fear recognition but not with theory of mind or cognitive
Adolescents with ASD show high rates of callous–unemotional traits but,
unlike in the general population, these are not strongly associated with
conduct problems. The relationship of callous–unemotional traits to
impairments in fear recognition suggests similar affective difficulties
as in individuals with callous–unemotional traits without ASD.
The Folkton ‘Drums’ constitute three of the most remarkable decorated objects from Neolithic Britain. New analysis using Reflectance Transformation Imaging and photogrammetry has revealed evidence for previously unrecorded motifs, erasure and reworking. Hence these chalk drums were not decorated according to a single, pre-ordained scheme, but were successively carved and recarved over time. Such practices may have been widespread in the making of artefacts in Neolithic Britain. The study of these drums also demonstrates the ability of these new techniques not only to record visible motifs, but to document erased and reworked motifs clearly.
Reintroductions aim to re-establish species within their historical ranges through the release of wild- or captive-bred individuals following extirpation (or extinction) in the wild. There is no general agreement on what constitutes a successful reintroduction but the probability of the population achieving long-term persistence should be addressed. Here we review a 10-year trial reintroduction of the great bustard Otis tarda, a globally threatened bird species, to the UK and assess the long-term population viability. Despite changes in rearing and release strategy, initial post-release survival probability remained consistently low, with only 11.3% of bustards (n = 167) surviving from release to 1 year post-release. Nineteen breeding attempts were made by eight females; however, only one chick survived > 100 days after hatching, and no wild juveniles have recruited into the population. Using demographic rates from the UK population and wild populations elsewhere, and stochastic population modelling, we investigate the viability of this reintroduced population by predicting population size over the next 10 years. Under current demographic rates the population was predicted to decline rapidly. Self-sufficiency was predicted only using the highest estimates from the UK population for first-year and adult survival, and recruitment rates from wild populations elsewhere. Although changes have been made in rearing, release strategies, habitat management and release sites used, these changes appear to have a modest effect on long-term viability. Substantial improvements in survival rates and productivity are necessary to establish a viable great bustard population in the UK, and we consider this unlikely.
Offload delay is a prolonged interval between ambulance arrival in the emergency department (ED) and transfer of patient care, typically occurring when EDs are crowded. The offload zone (OZ), which manages ambulance patients waiting for an ED bed, has been implemented to mitigate the impact of ED crowding on ambulance availability. Little is known about the safety or efficiency. The study objectives were to process map the OZ and conduct a hazard analysis to identify steps that could compromise patient safety or process efficiency.
A Health Care Failure Mode and Effect Analysis was conducted. Failure modes (FM) were identified. For each FM, a probability to occur and severity of impact on patient safety and process efficiency was determined, and a hazard score (probability X severity) was calculated. For any hazard score considered high risk, root causes were identified, and mitigations were sought.
The OZ consists of six major processes: 1) patient transported by ambulance, 2) arrival to the ED, 3) transfer of patient care, 4) patient assessment in OZ, 5) patient care in OZ, and 6) patient transfer out of OZ; 78 FM were identified, of which 28 (35.9%) were deemed high risk and classified as impact on patient safety (n=7/28, 25.0%), process efficiency (n=10/28, 35.7%), or both (n=11/28, 39.3%). Seventeen mitigations were suggested.
This process map and hazard analysis is a first step in understanding the safety and efficiency of the OZ. The results from this study will inform current policy and practice, and future work to reduce offload delay.