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As more debates in American politics become constitutional questions, effective citizens must engage in constitutional interpretation. While most Americans venerate the Constitution as a part of a national, civil religion, levels of constitutional knowledge are also very low. In this paper, we analyze how ordinary Americans approach the task of constitutional interpretation. An analysis of two cross-sectional surveys indicates constitutional hermeneutics are a product of political factors, religious affiliation, and biblical interpretive preferences. We also present the results of a survey experiment where the manipulation of a clergy's interpretation of a biblical passage affects how respondents interpret both scripture and the Constitution, providing a potential causal mechanism for learning how to engage in hermeneutics.
The adoption of chemical fallow rotations in Pacific Northwest dryland winter wheat production has caused a weed species composition shift in which scouringrush has established in production fields. Thus, there has been interest in identifying herbicides that effectively control scouringrush in winter wheat–chemical fallow cropping systems. Field experiments were established in growers’ fields near Reardan, WA, in 2014, and The Dalles, OR, in 2015. Ten herbicide treatments were applied to mowed and nonmowed plots during chemical fallow rotations. Scouringrush stem densities were quantified the following spring and after wheat harvest at both locations. Chlorsulfuron plus MCPA-ester resulted in nearly 100% control of scouringrush through wheat harvest. Before herbicide application, mowing had no effect on herbicide efficacy. We conclude chlorsulfuron plus MCPA-ester is a commercially acceptable treatment for smooth and intermediate scouringrush control in winter wheat–chemical fallow cropping systems; however, the lack of a positive yield response when scouringrushes were controlled should factor into management decisions.
We introduce a new modelling framework to explain socio-economic differences in mortality in terms of an affluence index that combines information on individual wealth and income. The model is illustrated using data on older Danish males over the period 1985–2012 reported in the Statistics Denmark national register database. The model fits the historical mortality data well, captures their key features, generates smoothed death rates that allow us to work with a larger number of sub-groups than has previously been considered feasible, and has plausible projection properties.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate primary care pediatrician (PCP) perceptions of prevalence of, time spent in, and satisfaction with behavioral health services across clinics with and without on-site behavioral health providers (BHPs). Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used to examine satisfaction across sites. Data were collected on PCP perceptions of behavioral health services among 60 pediatricians within two academic medical systems. Results: PCPs perceived behavioral health issues are prevalent and a time-consuming aspect of medical appointments and preferred to have on-site BHPs over off-site referral sources. Compared to sites without an on-site BHP, sites with on-site BHPs were more satisfied with behavioral health service availability and resources, felt they spent more time addressing medical concerns, and spent less time providing anticipatory guidance. Discussion: Study limitations included questions surrounding the validity of survey items to accurately assess PCP perceptions, lack of rigorous experimental design, and reliance on self-report data.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
For many pension schemes, a shortage of data limits their ability to use sophisticated stochastic mortality models to assess and manage their exposure to longevity risk. In this study, we develop a mortality model designed for such pension schemes, which compares the evolution of mortality rates in a sub-population with that observed in a larger reference population. We apply this approach to data from the CMI Self-Administered Pension Scheme study, using U.K. population data as a reference. We then use the approach to investigate the potential differences in the evolution of mortality rates between these two populations and find that, in many practical situations, basis risk is much less of a problem than is commonly believed.
Abstract. Headlines play a key role in influencing how and about what citizens are informed. In news media, their task is threefold: to represent stories, signal informational hierarchy and draw publicity for (or sell) what follows. This article examines the representative dimension of headline news content for the 2006 Canadian federal election campaign, testing whether public media headlines more faithfully reflected story-level coverage than commercial media. Comparing both public and commercial media coverage of this watershed election presents a unique opportunity to assess whether the overarching macro-incentive of commercial media—profit-making—may have influenced micro-level relationships between headlines and stories. Results of 55-day multiplatform analysis (N = 11,002) involving CBC election media and 12 commercial newsrooms reveal few differences with respect the representativeness of headlines from public and commercial media, save for the presence of journalists' opinion in headline content.
Résumé. Les titres influencent comment les citoyens sont informés, et à propos de quoi ils en pensent. Les titres ont trois objectifs dans les nouvelles : ils résument les nouvelles, signalent quelles nouvelles sont les plus importantes, et vendre l'histoire complète qui suit. L'article examine le niveau de représentativité des titres dans les nouvelles sur la campagne de l'élection fédérale canadienne de 2006. Plus précisément, il teste si les titres venant des médias publics sont plus représentatifs que les nouvelles dans le média commercial. En comparant la couverture médiatique dans cette élection structurante, nous explorons si la motivation des médias commerciaux, notamment le profit, peut influencer le lien entre les titres et les articles. Les résultats de l'analyse multiplateforme de la campagne qui durait 55 jours (N = 11 002) incluent la couverture sur la CBC et 12 médias commerciaux. Ils indiquent qu'il n'y a pas beaucoup de différence dans la représentativité des titres entre les sources publiques et commerciales, sauf la présence de l'opinion dans le contenu des titres.
Public service broadcasters (PSBs) are a central part of national news media landscapes, and are often regarded as specialists in the provision of hard news. But does exposure to public versus commercial news influence citizens’ knowledge of current affairs? This question is investigated in this article using cross-national surveys capturing knowledge of current affairs and media consumption. Propensity score analyses test for effects of PSBs on knowledge, and examine whether PSBs vary in this regard. Results indicate that compared to commercial news, PSBs have a positive influence on knowledge of hard news, though not all PSBs are equally effective in this way. Cross-national differences are related to factors such as de jure independence, proportion of public financing and audience share.
An inexpensive, easily constructed, and effective trapping system for capturing flying insects is described. The trapping system is a pole with multiple moveable bowls. The catch is preserved in a killing solution (propylene glycol) between monitoring intervals. Applications for this trapping system include evaluating effects of insect phenology, climate factors, habitat preferences, climatic conditions, and trap colour and interactions of these factors.
Fluid mechanics plays a vital role in early vertebrate embryo development, an example being the establishment of left–right asymmetry. Following the dorsal–ventral and anterior–posterior axes, the left–right axis is the last to be established; in several species it has been shown that an important process involved with this is the production of a left–right asymmetric flow driven by ‘whirling’ cilia. It has previously been established in experimental and mathematical models of the mouse ventral node that the combination of a consistent rotational direction and posterior tilt creates left–right asymmetric flow. The zebrafish organizing structure, Kupffer’s vesicle, has a more complex internal arrangement of cilia than the mouse ventral node; experimental studies show that the flow exhibits an anticlockwise rotational motion when viewing the embryo from the dorsal roof, looking in the ventral direction. Reports of the arrangement and configuration of cilia suggest two possible mechanisms for the generation of this flow from existing axis information: (a) posterior tilt combined with increased cilia density on the dorsal roof; and (b) dorsal tilt of ‘equatorial’ cilia. We develop a mathematical model of symmetry breaking cilia-driven flow in Kupffer’s vesicle using the regularized Stokeslet boundary element method. Computations of the flow produced by tilted whirling cilia in an enclosed domain suggest that a possible mechanism capable of producing the flow field with qualitative and quantitative features closest to those observed experimentally is a combination of posteriorly tilted roof and floor cilia, and dorsally tilted equatorial cilia.
Andrew Blake, worked for Dorset Library Service for over ten years,
Julia Hale, Young People's Services Manager for Plymouth Libraries, where she manages the children's and young people's library service for the city,
Emma Sherriff, Outreach Support Officer for Plymouth City Council
Young people aged 11–19 are perceived as a challenging group to engage in using public libraries. This chapter will examine projects delivered by library services in the most deprived areas of the UK's south-west peninsula, endeavouring to connect with some of the most hard-to-reach groups of young people in the region. Our aim is to identify how libraries can go about removing barriers to library use through innovative schemes of outreach work. We conclude with the reasons for successful outcomes.
What are the obstacles to young people's using public libraries?
This is a question we often hear in dialogues with librarians, youth agencies and young people. One stereotype of the younger library user is of the ‘bookish’ loner, socially outcast by their peers. There is also the view that libraries are fundamentally ‘uncool’ and have nothing to offer the 21stcentury teenager. Many librarians already doing positive work with teenagers may view these as unfounded prejudices and lazy clichés; however, there is plenty of evidence on which to base these views, confirmed by dwindling borrower figures amongst this age group.
In 2006, reports from the Audit Commission and the House of Commons Select Committee on Culture, Media and Sport had noted the small (and still reducing) use of public libraries amongst 14–35 year-olds. In response, the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council, Department for Culture, Media and Sport and Laser Foundation commissioned A Research Study of 14–35 year olds for the Future Development of Public Libraries (2006). This report aimed ‘to provide evidence for potential future strategies for the public library service that will result in increased usage amongst the 14–35 age group’. Interviews were held with 15 groups of young people from different parts of the country, chosen without reference to whether they were library members. The researchers found a ‘deeply entrenched negative perception’ of libraries and that the majority of existing and unmodernized libraries were seen as dirty and uncared for, with old and poor stocks and an oppressive atmosphere. ‘Users turned out to be a minority. Even they were reported as disappointed by the breadth and depth of stock and its lack of currency.’
This paper introduces a new framework for modelling the joint development over time of mortality rates in a pair of related populations with the primary aim of producing consistent mortality forecasts for the two populations. The primary aim is achieved by combining a number of recent and novel developments in stochastic mortality modelling, but these, additionally, provide us with a number of side benefits and insights for stochastic mortality modelling. By way of example, we propose an Age-Period-Cohort model which incorporates a mean-reverting stochastic spread that allows for different trends in mortality improvement rates in the short-run, but parallel improvements in the long run. Second, we fit the model using a Bayesian framework that allows us to combine estimation of the unobservable state variables and the parameters of the stochastic processes driving them into a single procedure. Key benefits of this include dampening down of the impact of Poisson variation in death counts, full allowance for paramater uncertainty, and the flexibility to deal with missing data. The framework is designed for large populations coupled with a small sub-population and is applied to the England & Wales national and Continuous Mortality Investigation assured lives males populations. We compare and contrast results based on the two-population approach with single-population results.
The martingale difference restriction is an outcome of many theoretical analyses in economics and finance. A large body of econometric literature deals with tests of that restriction. We provide new tests based on radial basis function (RBF) neural networks. Our work is based on the test design of Blake and Kapetanios (2000, 2003a, 2003b). However, unlike that work we provide a formal theoretical justification for the validity of these tests and present some new general theoretical results. These results take advantage of the link between the algorithms of Blake and Kapetanios (2000, 2003a, 2003b) and boosting. We carry out a Monte Carlo study of the properties of the new tests and find that they have very good power performance. A simplified implementation of boosting is found to have desirable properties and small computational cost. An empirical application to the S&P 500 constituents illustrates the usefulness of our new test.
The term ‘record producer’ is the greyest of grey areas. ‘Producers’ have had to deploy a startlingly wide range of skills. They have to play some role in pre-production (assembling the musicians and musical material to be recorded, overseeing rehearsals and sampling sessions, downloading existing tracks from bands' laptops), production (the actual recording of music) and post-production (its editing, mixing and assembly for delivery to the record company). Producers have been (and are) individual entrepreneurs, freelance operators, record label owners and record label employees. They have been people managers, whether Svengalis, artist and repertoire developers, or gifted amateur psychologists able to guide temperamental artists through a recording session. They have been events managers: the possessors of specialist legal knowledge in relation to contract and copyright law, finance and accounting (the producer will often be budget holder and administrator for the entire project of making an album). They have been musical managers: session fixers, composers, arrangers, synthesiser and drum machine programmers, and conductors. And very often they will have started as sound recording engineers, a profession dealt with in this book by Albin Zak. But most importantly they have been listeners, able to decode what happens in the recording and mixing studios in order to represent the eventual listening customer.
Western media coverage of the violence associated with the 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq has contrasted in magnitude and nature with population-based survey reports.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which first-hand reports of violent deaths were captured in the English language media by conducting in-depth interviews with Iraqi citizens.
The England-based Iraq Body Count (IBC) has methodically monitored media reports and recorded each violent death in Iraq that could be confirmed by two English language media sources. Using the capturerecapture method, 25 Masters' Degree students were assigned to interview residents in Iraq and asked them to describe 10 violent deaths that occurred closest to their home since the 2003 invasion. Students then matched these reports with those documented in IBC. These reports were matched both individually and crosschecked in groups to obtain a percentage of those deaths captured in the English language media.
Eighteen out of 25 students successfully interviewed someone in Iraq. Six contacted individuals by telephone, while the others conducted interviews via e-mail. One out of seven (14%) phone contacts refused to participate. Seventeen out of 18 primary interviewees resided in Baghdad, however, some interviewees reported deaths of neighbors that occurred while the neighbors were elsewhere. The Baghdad residents reported 161 deaths in total, 39 of which (24%) were believed to be reported in the press as summarized by IBC. An additional 13 deaths (8%) might have been in the database, and 61 (38%) were absolutely not in the database.
The vast majority of violent deaths (estimated from the results of this study as being between 68–76%) are not reported by the press. Efforts to monitor events by press coverage or reports of tallies similar to those reported in the press, should be evaluated with the suspicion applied to any passive surveillance network: that it may be incomplete. Even in the most heavily reported conflicts, the media may miss the majority of violent events.
It is now widely accepted that stochastic mortality – the risk that aggregate mortality might differ from that anticipated – is an important risk factor in both life insurance and pensions. As such it affects how fair values, premium rates, and risk reserves are calculated.
This paper makes use of the similarities between the force of mortality and interest rates to examine how we might model mortality risks and price mortality-related instruments using adaptations of the arbitrage-free pricing frameworks that have been developed for interest-rate derivatives. In so doing, the paper pulls together a range of arbitrage-free (or risk-neutral) frameworks for pricing and hedging mortality risk that allow for both interest and mortality factors to be stochastic. The different frameworks that we describe – short-rate models, forward-mortality models, positive-mortality models and mortality market models – are all based on positive-interest-rate modelling frameworks since the force of mortality can be treated in a similar way to the short-term risk-free rate of interest. While much of this paper is a review of the possible frameworks, the key new development is the introduction of mortality market models equivalent to the LIBOR and swap market models in the interest-rate literature.
These frameworks can be applied to a great variety of mortality-related instruments, from vanilla longevity bonds to exotic mortality derivatives.
The modern benthic fauna of the Antarctic continental shelf is characterized by the lack of active, skeleton-breaking (durophagous) predators such as crabs, lobsters and many fish, and the dominance in many areas of epifaunal suspension feeders. It has often been remarked that these ecological characteristics give the fauna a distinctly Palaeozoic feel, with the assumption that it may be an evolutionary relic. We now know that this is not so, and fossil evidence shows clearly that many of the taxa and life-styles that are absent now were previously present. The modern fauna has been shaped by a number of factors, important among which have been oceanographic changes and the onset of Cenozoic glaciation. Sea-water cooling, and periodic fragmentation of ranges and bathymetric shifts in distribution driven by variability in the size and extent of the continental ice cap on Milankovitch frequencies will all have caused both extinction and allopatric speciation. The modern glacial setting with relatively low terrestrial impact away from immediate coastal regions, and scouring by icebergs are the key factors influencing the ecology and population dynamics for the modern Antarctic benthos.
In response to the new challenges created by the internet and the converging of communications media, the industry is working very hard on systems of encryption and watermarking and collaborates with the government to set up a strong legal framework and to educate the public about the value of music.
Frances Lowe, Director, British Music Rights, The Performing Rights Society
It is sickening to know that our art is being traded like a commodity rather than the art that it is.
Lars Ulrich, drummer of heavy metal band Metallica
There was this bloke and there was me and we really got along. Our friendship was founded on our mutual passions for pop music, indolence and substance abuse. We would sit around together, heroically stoned, and play records all day long: punk records, soul records, horny disco records like ‘Hot Stuff’ by Donna Summer …
Dave Hill, music journalist
Twentieth-century listening and its spaces
Artists, fans, and the music business share an uneasy but symbiotic partnership. Dave Hill’s homosocial friendship, exploring music not through performance but through listening to purchased recordings, is a deeply twentieth-century subjectivity, reflecting the basic premise of much musical entertainment since the invention of sound recording. This involves a set of paradoxical relationships. For one thing, ‘music’ is a phenomenon that can and perhaps should be considered and enjoyed in and for itself – but to facilitate this enjoyment it has become a commodity, bought, sold, and consumed, to the regret of many composers and performers such as Lars Ulrich.