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Martin Heidegger is one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th Century, and a key philosophical resource for literary critics. Not only has he written about poetry, generations of poets have engaged his writings. And yet, for Heidegger poetry and literature are separate. An essential part of the project of this book therefore is to show how both the distinction and connection between literature and poetry is staged within Heidegger's thought. It offers Heidegger's perspective on a range of key themes, topics, poets, and writers, including Poetry and Poetics, Ancient Greek theatre and tragedies and then specifically Friedrich Hölderlin, Thomas Mann, Paul Celan, Euripides and Sophocles. As the Chapters comprising this book make clear, Heidegger's work remains indispensable for any serious engagement with either literature or poetry today.
The aim of this study was to identify and prioritize strategies for strengthening public health system resilience for pandemics, disasters, and other emergencies using a scorecard approach.
The United Nations Public Health System Resilience Scorecard (Scorecard) was applied across 5 workshops in Slovenia, Turkey, and the United States of America. The workshops focused on participants reviewing and discussing 23 questions/indicators. A Likert type scale was used for scoring with zero being the lowest and 5 the highest. The workshop scores were analyzed and discussed by participants to prioritize areas of need and develop resilience strategies. Data from all workshops were aggregated, analyzed, and interpreted to develop priorities representative of participating locations.
Eight themes emerged representing the need for better integration of public health and disaster management systems. These include: assessing community disease burden; embedding long-term recovery groups in emergency systems; exploring mental health care needs; examining ecosystem risks; evaluating reserve funds; identifying what crisis communication strategies worked well; providing non-medical services; and reviewing resilience of existing facilities, alternate care sites, and institutions.
The Scorecard is an effective tool for establishing baseline resilience and prioritizing actions. The strategies identified reflect areas in most need for investment to improve public health system resilience.
New technologies and disruptions related to Coronavirus disease-2019 have led to expansion of decentralized approaches to clinical trials. Remote tools and methods hold promise for increasing trial efficiency and reducing burdens and barriers by facilitating participation outside of traditional clinical settings and taking studies directly to participants. The Trial Innovation Network, established in 2016 by the National Center for Advancing Clinical and Translational Science to address critical roadblocks in clinical research and accelerate the translational research process, has consulted on over 400 research study proposals to date. Its recommendations for decentralized approaches have included eConsent, participant-informed study design, remote intervention, study task reminders, social media recruitment, and return of results for participants. Some clinical trial elements have worked well when decentralized, while others, including remote recruitment and patient monitoring, need further refinement and assessment to determine their value. Partially decentralized, or “hybrid” trials, offer a first step to optimizing remote methods. Decentralized processes demonstrate potential to improve urban-rural diversity, but their impact on inclusion of racially and ethnically marginalized populations requires further study. To optimize inclusive participation in decentralized clinical trials, efforts must be made to build trust among marginalized communities, and to ensure access to remote technology.
Invasive emergent and floating macrophytes can have detrimental impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Management of these aquatic weeds frequently relies upon foliar application of aquatic herbicides. However, there is inherent variability of overspray (herbicide loss) for foliar applications into waters within and adjacent to the targeted treatment area. The spray retention (tracer dye captured) of four invasive broadleaf emergent species (water hyacinth, alligatorweed, creeping water primrose, and parrotfeather) and two emergent grass-like weeds (cattail and torpedograss) were evaluated. For all species, spray retention was simulated using foliar applications of rhodamine WT (RWT) dye as a herbicide surrogate under controlled mesocosm conditions. Spray retention of the broadleaf species was first evaluated using a CO2-pressurized spray chamber overtop dense vegetation growth or no plants (positive control) at a greenhouse (GH) scale. Broadleaf species and grass-like species were then evaluated in larger outdoor mesocosms (OM). These applications were made using a CO2-pressurized backpack sprayer. Evaluation metrics included species-wise canopy cover and height influence on in-water RWT concentration using image analysis and modeling techniques. Results indicated spray retention was greatest for water hyacinth (GH, 64.7 ± 7.4; OM, 76.1 ± 3.8). Spray retention values were similar among the three sprawling marginal species alligatorweed (GH, 37.5 ± 4.5; OM, 42 ± 5.7), creeping water primrose (GH, 54.9 ± 7.2; OM, 52.7 ± 5.7), and parrotfeather (GH, 48.2 ± 2.3; OM, 47.2 ± 3.5). Canopy cover and height were strongly correlated with spray retention for broadleaf species and less strongly correlated for grass-like species. Although torpedograss and cattail were similar in percent foliar coverage, they differed in percent spray retention (OM, 8.5± 2.3 and 28.9 ±4.1, respectively). The upright leaf architecture of the grass-like species likely influenced the lower spray retention values in comparison to the broadleaf species.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Current COVID-19 rapid molecular tests require cartridge-reader detection, expensive circuitry, and complex microfluidics making the most accurate tests unavailable to the masses. Here we present a rapid molecular diagnostic leveraging isothermal amplification and paper-based microfluidics for a low-cost ultra-sensitive COVID-19 assay. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We designed a reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 and bacteriophage MS2 RNA. RT-RPA is a sequence specific, ultrasensitive, rapid isothermal DNA amplification technique that is well suited to home based testing due to its rapid assay time, robustness, ease of use, and readout options. RT-RPA reagents are added to a tube and incubated at 39Â°C in a fluorometer. Realtime fluorometer data gives results in under 15 minutes. This assay also provides visual detection via lateral flow readout with results in 23 minutes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We have developed a rapid multiplexed nucleic acid amplification assay with an internal process control for SARS-CoV-2 using single-pot RT-RPA. We screened 21 primer combinations to select primers that demonstrated excellent performance and target specificity against common respiratory viruses. We demonstrate the ability to multiplex SARS-CoV-2 and MS2 detection, utilizing MS2 as an internal process control for lysis, reverse transcription, amplification, and readout. We show duplexed detection using both fluorescence readout and visual readout using lateral flow strips. Duplexed fluorescence detection shows a limit of detection of 25 copies per reaction. Duplexed lateral flow readout shows a limit of detection of 50 copies per reaction DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We developed a duplexed RT-RPA assay for SARS-CoV-2 with fluorescence or lateral flow readout. Our assay does not re-quire expensive reader, circuity, or fluid handling. The low material cost, temperature, and robustness make it ideal for a more accurate home-based COVID-19 diagnostic.
Mesolithic resinous adhesives are well known for their role as hafting mastic within composite technologies, yet it is increasingly clear that their usage was more diverse than this. Birch-bark tar has been recovered from Mesolithic contexts as chewed lumps linked to medicinal treatment of toothache and oral diseases, and as a decorative element on ornaments and art objects; and an amorphous resinous substance possibly derived from pine or spruce resin has been found within a burial context. This diversity of applications suggests that resins and tars may have been understood in different ways which did not always privilege their mechanical functionality. To underscore the limited archaeological perspective of conifer resins and tars as hafting agents, we draw on data sourced from a wide range of ethnographically documented societies, demonstrating the array of economic and social functions these materials have for contemporary hunter-gatherer groups. Using archaeological case studies, we illustrate how a deeper understanding of the material and sensory properties of resins and tars, and the trees from which they are derived, opens new insights into the diverse roles resinous materials performed within Mesolithic worldviews.
Ingestion of mycoprotein stimulates skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS) rates to a greater extent than concentrated milk protein when matched for leucine content, potentially attributable to the wholefood nature of mycoprotein. We hypothesised that bolus ingestion of mycoprotein as part of its wholefood matrix would stimulate MPS rates to a greater extent compared with a leucine-matched bolus of protein concentrated from mycoprotein. Twenty-four healthy young (age, 21 ± 2 years; BMI, 24 ± 3 kg.m2) males received primed, continuous infusions of L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine and completed a bout of unilateral resistance leg exercise before ingesting either 70 g mycoprotein (MYC; 31·4 g protein, 2·5 g leucine; n 12) or 38·2 g of a protein concentrate obtained from mycoprotein (PCM; 28·0 g protein, 2·5 g leucine; n 12). Blood and muscle samples (vastus lateralis) were taken pre- and (4 h) post-exercise/protein ingestion to assess postabsorptive and postprandial myofibrillar protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR) in resting and exercised muscle. Protein ingestion increased plasma essential amino acid and leucine concentrations (P < 0·0001), but more rapidly (both 60 v. 90 min; P < 0·0001) and to greater magnitudes (1367 v. 1346 μmol·l–1 and 298 v. 283 μmol·l–1, respectively; P < 0·0001) in PCM compared with MYC. Protein ingestion increased myofibrillar FSR (P < 0·0001) in both rested (MYC, Δ0·031 ± 0·007 %·h–1 and PCM, Δ0·020 ± 0·008 %·h–1) and exercised (MYC, Δ0·057 ± 0·011 %·h–1 and PCM, Δ0·058 ± 0·012 %·h–1) muscle, with no differences between conditions (P > 0·05). Mycoprotein ingestion results in equivalent postprandial stimulation of resting and post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis rates irrespective of whether it is consumed within or without its wholefood matrix.
Hercules Dome, Antarctica, has long been identified as a prospective deep ice core site due to the undisturbed internal layering, climatic setting and potential to obtain proxy records from the Last Interglacial (LIG) period when the West Antarctic ice sheet may have collapsed. We performed a geophysical survey using multiple ice-penetrating radar systems to identify potential locations for a deep ice core at Hercules Dome. The surface topography, as revealed with recent satellite observations, is more complex than previously recognized. The most prominent dome, which we term ‘West Dome’, is the most promising region for a deep ice core for the following reasons: (1) bed-conformal radar reflections indicate minimal layer disturbance and extend to within tens of meters of the ice bottom; (2) the bed is likely frozen, as evidenced by both the shape of the measured vertical ice velocity profiles beneath the divide and modeled ice temperature using three remotely sensed estimates of geothermal flux and (3) models of layer thinning have 132 ka old ice at 45–90 m above the bed with an annual layer thickness of ~1 mm, satisfying the resolution and preservation needed for detailed analysis of the LIG period.
From January 1, 2018, until July 31, 2020, our hospital network experienced an outbreak of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). The goal of our study was to improve existing processes by applying machine-learning and graph-theoretical methods to a nosocomial outbreak investigation.
We assembled medical records generated during the first 2 years of the outbreak period (January 2018 through December 2019). We identified risk factors for VRE colonization using standard statistical methods, and we extended these with a decision-tree machine-learning approach. We then elicited possible transmission pathways by detecting commonalities between VRE cases using a graph theoretical network analysis approach.
We compared 560 VRE patients to 86,684 controls. Logistic models revealed predictors of VRE colonization as age (aOR, 1.4 (per 10 years), with 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–1.5; P < .001), ICU admission during stay (aOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2–1.9; P < .001), Charlson comorbidity score (aOR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1–1.2; P < .001), the number of different prescribed antibiotics (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.5–1.7; P < .001), and the number of rooms the patient stayed in during their hospitalization(s) (aOR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1–1.2; P < .001). The decision-tree machine-learning method confirmed these findings. Graph network analysis established 3 main pathways by which the VRE cases were connected: healthcare personnel, medical devices, and patient rooms.
We identified risk factors for being a VRE carrier, along with 3 important links with VRE (healthcare personnel, medical devices, patient rooms). Data science is likely to provide a better understanding of outbreaks, but interpretations require data maturity, and potential confounding factors must be considered.
Thermal x-rays from neutron stars are mainly radiated by accretion discs originating in the flux of material from a companion star. The companions are white dwarf stars with a range of masses, and some black holes. X-ray bursts are attributed to catastrophic nuclear events on the neutron star surface following accretion from the companion. Structure in the rotating accretion disc is observed as quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).
Most of our understanding of the location and nature of the beamed emission comes from the pulse profiles, which are available over the whole electromagnetic spectrum. The radio profiles are the most detailed, with observations of polarisation, width and components.
Finding the population of pulsars in the Milky Way galaxy requires a knowledge of the parameters and limitations of the various surveys made with different instruments and in different regions of the sky. We list the available survey data and show how models of the galactic population can be compared with the observational data, allowing estimates of pulsar birthrate and lifetime. Determination of accurate positions of individual pulsars require a Solar System ephemeris and a complex geometrical computation. Binary pulsar orbits display reletivistic effects which can be measured with remarkable precision to yield parameters of orbits and checks on relativistic theory.
The characteristic steps in the rotation rates of pulsars are known as glitches and arise in the irregular transfer of angular momentum from the interior to the crust as a neutron star spins down. They are related to the structure and the fluid dynamics of some superfluid components. The angular momentum is quantised in vortices, which may be pinned to the crystal structure of the crust. Glitches may be related to catastrophic unpinning events and to cracking of the crust itself. Timing noise is quasi-random variation in rotation rate. In many pulsars, the spin-down rate is seen to switch abruptly as the emission changes, indicating that changes in magnetospheric particle flows are responsible for both spin-down and radiation.
Pulsar distances are obtained from their frequency dispersion, geometrically from annual parallax, and from optical identifiction with supernova remnants, globular clusters and binary companions. For most pulsars, distances are only available from observation of effects of propagation in the interstellar medium, particularly neutral hydrogen absorption and frequency dispersion. Interpretation of the dispersion measure requires a model of the electron distribution through the Galaxy.
Magnetars were originally observed as high-energy emitters as either soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) or anomalous x-ray pulsars (AXPs). They are very active, mainly observed as x-ray sources, apparently very young and probably part of the general population of pulsars but with much larger magnetic fields. The origin of the large magnetic fields is unclear.
Stable neutron stars exist with masses approximately between one and two solar masses, and radii of approximately 10 to 11 km. The structure is determined primarily by a balance between gravitation and the repulsion between adjacent neutrons. The configuration depends on the equation of state of the neutron fluid. The rotation of the strong dipolar magnetic field generates a magnetosphere of charged particles, which co-rotates with the star.